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CONTENTS
Volume 12, Number 2, August 2013
 

Abstract
This paper presents numerical and experimental results on the use of guided waves for structural health monitoring (SHM) of crack growth during a fatigue test in a thick steel plate used for civil engineering application. Numerical simulation, analytical modeling, and experimental tests are used to prove that piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) can perform active SHM using guided wave pitch-catch method and passive SHM using acoustic emission (AE). AE simulation was performed with the multi-physic FEM (MP-FEM) approach. The MP-FEM approach permits that the output variables to be expressed directly in electric terms while the two-ways electromechanical conversion is done internally in the MP-FEM formulation. The AE event was simulated as a pulse of defined duration and amplitude. The electrical signal measured at a PWAS receiver was simulated. Experimental tests were performed with PWAS transducers acting as passive receivers of AE signals. An AE source was simulated using 0.5-mm pencil lead breaks. The PWAS transducers were able to pick up AE signal with good strength. Subsequently, PWAS transducers and traditional AE transducer were applied to a 12.7-mm CT specimen subjected to accelerated fatigue testing. Active sensing in pitch catch mode on the CT specimen was applied between the PWAS transducers pairs. Damage indexes were calculated and correlated with actual crack growth. The paper finishes with conclusions and suggestions for further work.

Key Words
acoustic emission; active sensing; finite element method; crack detection; piezoelectric wafer active sensor; structural health monitoring; predictive modeling

Address
M. Gresil, L. Yu , Y. Shen and V. Giurgiutiu : University of South Carolina, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 300 Main Street, Columbia, SC, 29201, USA

Abstract
This study proposes an innovative control approach to suppress the responses of a beam structural system under moving forces. The proposed control algorithm is a synthesis of the adaptive input estimation method (AIEM) and linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller. Using the synthesis algorithm the moving forces can be estimated using AIEM while the LQG controller offers proper control forces to effectively suppress the beam structural system responses. Active control numerical simulations of the beam structural system are performed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control technique. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed method has more robust active control performance than the conventional LQG method.

Key Words
AIEM; LQG; active control

Address
Ming-Hui Lee : Department of Civil Engineering, Chinese Military Academy, Fengshan, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Abstract
Brittle fracture of structures excited by earthquakes can be prevented by adding a tuned mass damper (TMD). This TMD must be optimum and suitable to the physical conditions of the structure. Compressive strength of concrete is an important factor for brittle fracture. The application of a TMD to structures with low compressive strength of concrete may not be possible if the weight of the TMD is too much. A heavy TMD is dangerous for these structures because of insufficient axial force capacity of structure. For the preventing brittle fracture, the damping ratio of the TMD must be sufficient to reduce maximum shear forces below the values proposed in design regulations. Using the formulas for frequency and damping ratio related to a preselected mass, this objective can be only achieved by increasing the mass of the TMD. By using a metaheuristic method, the optimum parameters can be searched in a specific limit. In this study, Harmony Search (HS) is employed to find optimum TMD parameters for preventing brittle fracture by reducing shear force in additional to other time and frequency responses. The proposed method is feasible for the retrofit of weak structures with insufficient compressive strength of concrete.

Key Words
brittle fracture; metaheuristic methods; harmony search algorithm; tuned mass damper; optimization; structural control; earthquake

Address
Sinan Melih Nigdeli and Gebrail Bekdas : Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul University, 34320 Avc

Abstract
We present an approach, based on the state dependent Riccati equation, for designing non-collocated seismic response control strategies for buildings accounting for physical constraints, with particular attention to force saturation. We consider both cases of active control using general actuators and semi-active control using magnetorheological dampers. The formulation includes multi control devices, acceleration feedback and time delay compensation. In the active case, the proposed approach is a generalization of the classic linear quadratic regulator, while, in the semi-active case, it represents a novel generalization of the well-established modified clipped optimal approach. As discussed in the paper, the main advantage of the proposed approach with respect to existing strategies is that it allows to naturally handle a broad class of non-linearities as well as different types of control constraints, not limited to force saturation but also including, for instance, displacement limitations. Numerical results on a typical building benchmark problem demonstrate that these additional features are achieved with essentially the same control effectiveness of existing saturation control strategies.

Key Words
structural control; seismic structural protection; active bracing systems; magnetorheological dampers; state dependent Riccati equation

Address
Filippo Ubertini and A. Luigi Materazzi : Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Perugia, Perugia 06125, Italy

Abstract
In this paper, a statistical reference-free real-time damage detection methodology is proposed for detecting joint and member damage of truss bridge structures. For the statistical damage sensitive index (DSI), wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) in conjunction with the log likelihood ratio was suggested. A sensitivity test for selecting a wavelet packet that is most sensitive to damage level was conducted and determination of the level of decomposition was also described. Advantages of the proposed method for applications to real-time health monitoring systems were demonstrated by using the log likelihood ratios instead of likelihood ratios. A laboratory truss bridge structure instrumented with accelerometers and a shaker was used for experimental verification tests of the proposed methodology. The statistical reference-free real-time damage detection algorithm was successfully implemented and verified by detecting three damage types frequently observed in truss bridge structures – such as loss of bolts, loosening of bolts at multiple locations, sectional loss of members – without reference signals from pristine structure. The DSI based on WPD and the log likelihood ratio showed consistent and reliable results under different damage scenarios.

Key Words
real-time monitoring; structural health monitoring (SHM); wavelet packet decomposition (WPD); likelihood; reference-free; truss bridge structure; damage identification

Address
Soon Gie Lee : Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. LTD., 656-714, Geoje, South Korea
Gun Jin Yun: Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3905, USA

Abstract
With an annual growth rate of about 30%, wind energy systems, such as wind turbines, represent one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies. Continuous structural health monitoring of wind turbines can help improving structural reliability and facilitating optimal decisions with respect to maintenance and operation at minimum associated life-cycle costs. This paper presents an integrated monitoring system that is designed to support structural assessment and life-cycle management of wind turbines. The monitoring system systematically integrates a wide variety of hardware and software modules, including sensors and computer systems for automated data acquisition, data analysis and data archival, a multiagent-based system for self-diagnosis of sensor malfunctions, a model updating and damage detection framework for structural assessment, and a management module for monitoring the structural condition and the operational efficiency of the wind turbine. The monitoring system has been installed on a 500 kW wind turbine located in Germany. Since its initial deployment in 2009, the system automatically collects and processes structural, environmental, and operational wind turbine data. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach not only to ensure continuous safety of the structures, but also to enable cost-efficient maintenance and operation of wind turbines.

Key Words
life-cycle management; structural health monitoring; wind turbines; multi-agent technology; remote monitoring; damage detection; model updating; system identification

Address
Kay Smarsly and Kincho H. Law : Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Dietrich Hartmann : Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany


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