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CONTENTS
Volume 13, Number 2, February 2014
 

Abstract
This special issue focuses on Smart Tuned Mass Dampers (STMD) that are either active or smart or semi-active in nature. Active tuned mass dampers or active mass dampers have found wide acceptance and have been implemented in many tall buildings and long span bridges. Recently researchers have developed a new class of smart tuned mass dampers using either variable stiffness and/or variable damping to effect the change in instantaneous frequency and damping. Since tuning plays a central role in STMDs it is of great current interest thus the topic of this special issue. Discussions of recent active and smart TMD implementations in tall buildings and bridges are also included.

Key Words
tuned mass damper; active; semiactive; smart; adaptive passive; tuning; instantaneous frequency

Address
Satish Nagarajaiah: Rice University, Houston, TX, USA
Hyung-Jo Jung: Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea

Abstract
With the increased size and flexibility of the tower and blades, structural vibrations are becoming a limiting factor towards the design of even larger and more powerful wind turbines. Research into the use of vibration mitigation devices in the turbine tower has been carried out but the use of dampers in the blades has yet to be investigated in detail. Mitigating vibrations will increase the design life and hence economic viability of the turbine blades and allow for continual operation with decreased downtime. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of Semi-Active Tuned Mass Dampers (STMDs) in reducing the edgewise vibrations in the turbine blades. A frequency tracking algorithm based on the Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) technique is used to tune the damper. A theoretical model has been developed to capture the dynamic behaviour of the blades including the coupling with the tower to accurately model the dynamics of the entire turbine structure. The resulting model consists of time dependent equations of motion and negative damping terms due to the coupling present in the system. The performances of the STMDs based vibration controller have been tested under different loading and operating conditions. Numerical analysis has shown that variation in certain parameters of the system, along with the time varying nature of the system matrices has led to the need for STMDs to allow for real-time tuning to the resonant frequencies of the system.

Key Words
structural control; vibration; semi-active control; damping; wind energy

Address
John Arrigan, Andrea Staino and Biswajit Basu : Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
Chaojun Huang and Satish Nagarajaiah : Department of Civil and Env. Eng. and Mech. Eng. and Mat. Sc., Rice University, Houston, TX, USA

Abstract
Due to the shift in paradigm from passive control to adaptive control, smart tuned mass dampers (STMDs) have received considerable attention for vibration control in tall buildings and bridges. STMDs are superior to tuned mass dampers (TMDs) in reducing the response of the primary structure. Unlike TMDs, STMDs are capable of accommodating the changes in primary structure properties, due to damage or deterioration, by tuning in real time based on a local feedback. In this paper, a novel adaptive-length pendulum (ALP) damper is developed and experimentally verified. Length of the pendulum is adjusted in real time using a shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuator. This can be achieved in two ways i) by changing the amount of current in the SMA wire actuator or ii) by changing the effective length of current carrying SMA wire. Using an instantaneous frequency tracking algorithm, the dominant frequency of the structure can be tracked from a local feedback signal, then the length of pendulum is adjusted to match the dominant frequency. Effectiveness of the proposed ALP-STMD mechanism, combined with the STFT frequency tracking control algorithm, is verified experimentally on a prototype two-storey shear frame. It has been observed through experimental studies that the ALP-STMD absorbs most of the input energy associated in the vicinity of tuned frequency of the pendulum damper. The reduction of storey displacements up to 80 % when subjected to forced excitation (harmonic and chirp-signal) and a faster decay rate during free vibration is observed in the experiments.

Key Words
smart tuned mass damper; adaptive passive tuned mass damper; short time fourier transform; tuned vibration absorbers; dynamic vibration absorbers; shape memory alloy

Address
Dharma Theja Reddy Pasala : Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX-77005, USA
Satish Nagarajaiah: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering & Material science,
Rice University, Houston, TX-77005, USA

Abstract
In a companion paper, Pasala and Nagarajaiah analytically and experimentally validate the Adaptive Length Pendulum Smart Tuned Mass Damper (ALP-STMD) on a primary structure (2 story steel structure) whose frequencies are time invariant (Pasala and Nagarajaiah 2012). In this paper, the ALP-STMD effectiveness on a primary structure whose frequencies are time varying is studied experimentally. This study experimentally validates the ability of an ALP-STMD to adequately control a structural system in the presence of real time changes in primary stiffness that are detected by a real time observer based system identification. The experiments implement the newly developed Adaptive Length Pendulum Smart Tuned Mass Damper (ALP-STMD) which was first introduced and developed by Nagarajaiah (2009), Nagarajaiah and Pasala (2010) and Nagarajaiah et al. (2010). The ALP-STMD employs a mass pendulum of variable length which can be tuned in real time to the parameters of the system using sensor feedback. The tuning action is made possible by applying a current to a shape memory alloy wire changing the effective length that supports the damper mass assembly in real time. Once a stiffness change in the structural system is detected by an open loop observer, the ALP-STMD is re-tuned to the modified system parameters which successfully reduce the response of the primary system. Significant performance improvement is illustrated for the stiffness modified system, which undergoes the re-tuning adaptation, when compared to the stiffness modified system without adaptive re-tuning.

Key Words
smart tuned mass damper; adaptive passive tuned mass damper; tuned vibration absorbers; shape memory alloy; adaptive length pendulum; observer based structural health monitoring

Address
Michael T. Contreras : Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
Dharma Theja Reddy Pasala: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Satish Nagarajaiah: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering and Material science,
Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA

Abstract
This paper mainly introduces recently developed technologies pertaining to the design and implementation of Active Mass Damper (AMD) control system on a high-rise building subjected to wind load. Discussions include introduction of real structure and the control system, the establishment of analytical model, the design and optimization of a variety of controllers, the design of time-varying variable gain feedback control strategy for limiting auxiliary mass stroke, and the design and optimization of AMD control devices. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the proposed AMD control systems can resolve the issues pertaining to insufficient floor stiffness of the building. The control system operates well and has a good sensitivity.

Key Words
Active Mass Damper; variable gain feedback control; limiting auxiliary mass stroke; optimization

Address
J. Teng, H.B. Xing, Y.Q. Xiao, C.Y. Liu, H. Li and J.P. Ou : Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen, China

Abstract
In this paper, a novel PARAllel FACtor (PARAFAC) decomposition based Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithm is proposed for modal identification of structures equipped with tuned mass dampers. Tuned mass dampers (TMDs) are extremely effective vibration absorbers in tall flexible structures, but prone to get de-tuned due to accidental changes in structural properties, alteration in operating conditions, and incorrect design forecasts. Presence of closely spaced modes in structures coupled with TMDs renders output-only modal identification difficult. Over the last decade, second-order BSS algorithms have shown significant promise in the area of ambient modal identification. These methods employ joint diagonalization of covariance matrices of measurements to estimate the mixing matrix (mode shape coefficients) and sources (modal responses). Recently, PARAFAC BSS model has evolved as a powerful multi-linear algebra tool for decomposing an nth order tensor into a number of rank-1 tensors. This method is utilized in the context of modal identification in the present study. Covariance matrices of measurements at several lags are used to form a 3rd order tensor and then PARAFAC decomposition is employed to obtain the desired number of components, comprising of modal responses and the mixing matrix. The strong uniqueness properties of PARAFAC models enable direct source separation with fine spectral resolution even in cases where the number of sensor observations is less compared to the number of target modes, i.e., the underdetermined case. This capability is exploited to separate closely spaced modes of the TMDs using partial measurements, and subsequently to estimate modal parameters. The proposed method is validated using extensive numerical studies comprising of multi-degree-of-freedom simulation models equipped with TMDs, as well as with an experimental set-up.

Key Words
modal identification; blind source separation; parallel factor decomposition; tuned-mass damper; MTMD

Address
A. Sadhu, B. Hazra and S. Narasimhan : Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, N2L 3G1

Abstract
In order to suppress the wind-induced vibrations of the Canton Tower, a pair of active mass river (AMD) systems has been installed on the top of the main structure. The structural principal directions n which the bending modes of the structure are uncoupled are proposed and verified based on the rthogonal projection approach. For the vibration control design in the principal X direction, the simplified odel of the structure is developed based on the finite element model and modified according to the field measurements under wind excitations. The AMD system driven by permanent magnet synchronous linear otors are adopted. The dynamical models of the AMD subsystems are determined according to the pen-loop test results by using nonlinear least square fitting method. The continuous variable gain feedback VGF) control strategy is adopted to make the AMD system adaptive to the variation in the intensity of wind excitations. Finally, the field tests of free vibration control are carried out. The field test results of AMD control show that the damping ratio of the first vibration mode increases up to 11 times of the original value without control.

Key Words
structural vibration control; variable gain feedback control; wind-induced vibration; active ass driver; linear motor

Address
Huai-bing Xu, Chun-wei Zhang, Hui Li and Jin-ping Ou : School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
Ping Tan and Fu-lin Zhou : The State Key Laboratory of Seismic Reduction/Control & Structural Safety (Cultivation),
Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510405, China

Abstract
This paper numerically investigates the feasibility of an active mass damper (AMD) system using the time delay control (TDC) algorithm, which is one of the robust and adaptive control algorithms, for effectively suppressing the excessive vibration of a building structure under wind loading. Because of its several attractive features such as the simplicity and the excellent robustness to unknown system dynamics and disturbance, the TDC algorithm has the potential to be an effective control system for mitigating the vibration of civil engineering structures such as buildings and bridges. However, it has not been used for structural response reduction yet. In this study, therefore, the active control method combining an AMD system with the TDC algorithm is first proposed in order to reduce the wind-induced vibration of a building structure and its effectiveness is numerically examined. To this end, its stability analysis is first performed; and then, a series of numerical simulations are conducted. It is demonstrated that the proposed active structural control system can effectively reduce the acceleration response of the building structure.

Key Words
structural control; adaptive control; time delay control; unknown dynamics; vibration mitigation

Address
Dong-Doo Jang and Hyung-Jo Jung: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu,
Daejeon 305-701, Korea
Yeong-Jong Moon: Construction Technology Center, Samsung C&T Corporation, Seocho 2-dong,Seocho-gu, Seoul, 137-857, Korea

Abstract
A family of smart tuned mass dampers (STMDs) with variable frequency and damping properties is analyzed under harmonic excitations and ground motions. Two types of STMDs are studied: one is realized by a semi-active independently variable stiffness (SAIVS) device and the other is realized by a pendulum with an adjustable length. Based on the feedback signal, the angle of the SAIVS device or the length of the pendulum is adjusted by using a servomotor such that the frequency of the STMD matches the dominant excitation frequency in real-time. Closed-form solutions are derived for the two types of STMDs under harmonic excitations and ground motions. Results indicate that a small damping ratio (zero damping is the best theoretically) and an appropriate mass ratio can produce significant reduction when compared to the case with no tuned mass damper. Experiments are conducted to verify the theoretical result of the smart pendulum TMD (SPTMD). Frequency tuning of the SPTMD is implemented through tracking and analyzing the signal of the excitation using a short time Fourier transformation (STFT) based control algorithm. It is found that the theoretical model can predict the structural responses well. Both the SAIVS STMD and the SPTMD can significantly attenuate the structural responses and outperform the conventional passive TMDs.

Key Words
smart tuned mass dampers (STMDs); harmonic excitation and ground motion; frequency tracking; closed-form solutions; experimental verification

Address
C. Sun and S. Nagarajaiah : Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA
S. Nagarajaiah and A.J. Dick: Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA


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