Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


sss
 
CONTENTS
Volume 13, Number 4, April 2014
 

Abstract
.

Key Words
.

Address
.

Abstract
This paper presents a linear computational homogenization framework to evaluate the effective (or generalized) electromechanical coupling coefficient (EMCC) of adaptive structures with piezoelectric structural fiber (PSF) composite elements. The PSF consists of a silicon carbide (SiC) or carbon core fiber as reinforcement to a fragile piezo-ceramic shell. For the micro-scale analysis, a micromechanics model based on the variational asymptotic method for unit cell homogenization (VAMUCH) is used to evaluate the overall electromechanical properties of the PSF composites. At the macro-scale, a finite element (FE) analysis with the commercial FE code ABAQUS is performed to evaluate the effective EMCC for structures with the PSF composite patches. The EMCC is postprocessed from free-vibrations analysis under short-circuit (SC) and open-circuit (OC) electrodes of the patches. This linear two-scale computational framework may be useful for the optimal design of active structure multi-functional composites which can be used for multi-functional applications such as structural health monitoring, power harvest, vibration sensing and control, damping, and shape control through anisotropic actuation.

Key Words
smart materials; mechanical properties; electrical properties; multiscale modeling

Address
Yao Koutsawa, Gaetano Giunta and Salim Belouettar: Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, 29, Avenue John F. Kennedy, L-1855 Luxembourg, G.D. of Luxembourg
Sonnou Tiem: Ecole Nationale Supérieure d\'Ingénieurs, Université de Lomé, BP. 1515, Lomé, Togo

Abstract
This paper proposes a refined electro-mechanical beam formulation. Lagrange-type polynomials areused to interpolate the unknowns over the beam cross section. Three- (L3), four- (L4), and nine-point(L9) polynomials are considered which lead to linear, bi-linear, and quadratic displacement field approximations over the beam cross-section. Finite elements are obtained by employing the principle of virtualdisplacements in conjunction with the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). The finite element matricesand vectors are expressed in terms of fundamental nuclei whose forms do not depend on the assumptions made. Additional refined beam models are implemented by introducing further discretizations, overthe beam cross-section. Some assessments from bibliography have been solved in order to validate theelectro-mechanical formulation. The investigations conducted show that the present formulation is ableto detect the electro-mechanical interaction.

Key Words
CUF; higher-order formulation; electro-mechanical formulation; finite elements

Address
F.Miglioretti, E. Carreraa, and M. Petrolo:Department of mechanical and aerospace engineering Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino, Italiy
E. Carreraa: Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
This paper investigates the design of a perfect point load actuator based on flat triangular piezoelectric patches. Applying a difference of electric potential between the electrodes of a triangular patch leads to point loads at the tips and distributed moments along the edges of the electrodes. The previously derived analytical expressions of these forces show that they depend on two factors: the width over height (b/l) ratio of the triangle, and the ratio of the in-plane piezoelectric properties (e31/e32) of the active layer of the piezoelectric patch. In this paper, it is shown that by a proper choice of b/l and of the piezoelectric properties, the moments can be cancelled, so that if one side of the triangle is clamped, a perfect point load actuation can be achieved. This requires e31/e32 to be negative, which imposes the use of interdigitated electrodes instead of continuous ones. The design of two transducers with interdigitated electrodes for perfect point load actuation on a clamped plate is verified with finite element calculations. The first design is based on a full piezoelectric ceramic patch and shows superior actuation performance than the second design based on a piezocomposite patch with a volume fraction of fibres of 86%. The results show that both designs lead to perfect point load actuation while the use of an isotropic PZT patch with continuous electrodes gives significantly different results.

Key Words
shaped piezocomposite actuators; interdigitated electrodes; triangular piezoelectric transducers; point load actuation

Address
Gilles Tondreau, Sudharsana Raamanujan Raman and Arnaud Deraemaeker:ULB, Building Architecture and Town Planning, 50 av. Franklin Roosevelt, CP 194/02, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium

Abstract
The piezoelectric transverse d15 shear sensing mechanism is firstly assessed experimentally for a cantilever smart sandwich plate made of a piezoceramic axially poled patched core and glass fiber reinforced polymer composite faces. Different electrical connections are tested for the assessment of the sensor performance under a varying amplitude harmonic (at 24 Hz) force. Also, the dynamic response of the smart sandwich composite structure is monitored using different acquisition devices. The obtained experimentally sensed voltages are compared to those resulting from the benchmark three-dimensional piezoelectric coupled finite element simulations using a commercial code where realistic features, like equipotential conditions on the patches\' electrodes and mechanical updating of the clamp, are considered. Numerically, it is found that the stiffness of the clamp, which is much softer than the ideal one, has an enormous influence on the sensed voltage of its adjacent patch; therefore, sensing with the patch on the free side would be more advantageous for a cantilever configuration. Apart from confirming the latter result, the plate benchmark experimental assessment showed that the parallel connection of its two oppositely poled patches has a moderate performance but better than the clamp side patch acting as an individual sensor.

Key Words
piezoceramic d15 shear sensing; piezoelectric composite sandwich plate; harmonic sensing experiments; finite element simulations; mechanical updating; electrical connections

Address
Pelin Berik and Michael Krommer:Institute for Technical Mechanics, Johannes Kepler University, 4040 Linz, Austria
Ayech Benjeddou:Structures, Institut Supérieur de Mécanique de Paris, 93400 Saint Ouen, France

Abstract
In recent years the interest in online monitoring of lightweight structures with ultrasonic guided waves is steadily growing. Especially the aircraft industry is a driving force in the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. In order to optimally design SHM systems powerful and efficient numerical simulation tools to predict the behaviour of ultrasonic elastic waves in thin-walled structures are required. It has been shown that in real industrial applications, such as airplane wings or fuselages, conventional linear and quadratic pure displacement finite elements commonly used to model ultrasonic elastic waves quickly reach their limits. The required mesh density, to obtain good quality solutions, results in enormous computational costs when solving the wave propagation problem in the time domain. To resolve this problem different possibilities are available. Analytical methods and higher order finite element method approaches (HO-FEM), like p-FEM, spectral elements, spectral analysis and isogeometric analysis, are among them. Although analytical approaches offer fast and accurate results, they are limited to rather simple geometries. On the other hand, the application of higher order finite element schemes is a computationally demanding task. The drawbacks of both methods can be circumvented if regions of complex geometry are modelled using a HO-FEM approach while the response of the remaining structure is computed utilizing an analytical approach. The objective of the paper is to present an efficient method to couple different HO-FEM schemes with an analytical description of an undisturbed region. Using this hybrid formulation the numerical effort can be drastically reduced. The functionality of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by studying the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in plates, excited by a piezoelectric patch actuator. The actuator is modelled utilizing higher order coupled field finite elements, whereas the homogenous, isotropic plate is described analytically. The results of this \"semi-analytical\" approach highlight the opportunities to reduce the numerical effort if closed-form solutions are partially available.

Key Words
analytical methods; spectral finite elements; higher order finite elements; piezoelectricity; structural health monitoring; Lamb waves

Address
Juan M. Vivar-Perez:German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems, Sportallee 54a, 223355 Hamburg, Germany
Sascha Duczek and Ulrich Gabbert: Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, Institute of Mechanics, Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany

Abstract
Aluminium Foam Sandwich (AFS) panels are becoming always more attractive in transportation applications thanks to the excellent combination of mechanical properties, high strength and stiffness, with functional ones, thermo-acoustic isolation and vibration damping. These properties strongly depend on the density of the foam, the morphology of the pores, the type (open or closed cells) and the size of the gas bubbles enclosed in the solid material. In this paper, the vibrational performances of two classes of sandwich panels with an Alulight R foam core are studied. Experimental tests, in terms of frequency response function and modal analysis, are performed in order to investigate the effect of different percentage of porosity in the foam, as well as the effect of the random distribution of the gas bubbles. Experimental results are used as a reference for developing numerical models using finite element approach. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis is performed in order to obtain a limit-but-bounded dynamic response, modelling the foam core as a homogeneous one. The experimental-numerical correlation is evaluated in terms of natural frequencies and mode shapes. Afterwards, an update of the previous numerical model is presented, in which the core is not longer modelled as homogeneous. Mass and stiffness are randomly distributed in the core volume, exploring the space of the eigenvectors.

Key Words
aluminium foam; sandwich panel; modal analysis; modelling

Address
Vincenzo D\'Alessandro, Giuseppe Petrone, Sergio De Rosa and Francesco Franco: PASTA-Lab, Laboratory for Promoting experiences in Aeronautical Structures and Acoustics Department of Industrial Engineering – Aerospace Section Università degli Studi di Napoli \"Federico II\", via Claudio 21 – 80125 Napoli, Italy

Abstract
This paper presents a dynamic analysis of three-dimensional beams. Structures made of functionally graded materials are considered. Several higher-order as well as classical theories are derived by means of a compact notation for the a-priori expansion order of the displacement field over the beam cross-section. The governing differential equations and boundary conditions are obtained in a condensed nuclear form that does not depend on the kinematic hypotheses. The problem is, then, exactly solved in space by means of a Navier-type solution, whereas time integration is performed by means of Newmark\'s solution scheme. Slender and short simply supported beams are investigated. Results are validated towards three-dimensional FEM results obtained via the commercial software ANSYS. Numerical investigations show that good accuracy can be obtained through the proposed formulation provided that the appropriate expansion order is considered.

Key Words
three-dimensional beam structures; functionally graded materials; dynamic analysis

Address
Gaetano Giunta, Yao Koutsawa and Salim Belouettar: Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, 29, av. John F. Kennedy, L-1855, Luxembourg-Kirchberg, Luxembourg
Adriano Calvi: ESTEC - European Space Agency, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

Abstract
The static analysis of structures with arbitrary cross-section geometry and material lamination via a refined one-dimensional (1D) approach is presented in this paper. Higher-order 1D models with a variable order of expansion for the displacement field are developed on the basis of Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). Classical Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories are obtained as particular cases of the first-order model. Numerical results of displacement, strain and stress are provided by using the finite element method (FEM) along the longitudinal direction for different configurations in excellent agreement with three-dimensional (3D) finite element solutions. In particular, a layered thin-walled cylinder is considered as first assessment with a laminated conventional cross-section. An atherosclerotic plaque is introduced as a typical structure with arbitrary cross-section geometry and studied for both the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous material cases through the 1D variable kinematic models. The analyses highlight limitations of classical beam theories and the importance of higher-order terms in accurately detecting in-plane cross-section deformation without introducing additional numerical problems. Comparisons with 3D finite element solutions prove that 1D CUF provides remarkable three-dimensional accuracy in the analysis of even short and nonhomogeneous structures with arbitrary geometry through a significant reduction in computational cost.

Key Words
refined 1D finite elements; unified formulation; higher-order models; arbitrary cross-section; nonhomogeneous material

Address
Alberto Varello Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Erasmo Carrera: Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy;
Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia

Abstract
Carbon nanotubes are due to their outstanding mechanical properties destined for a wide range of possible applications. Since the knowledge of the material behavior is vital regarding the possible applications, experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted to investigate the properties of this promising material. The aim of the present research is the calculation of mechanical properties and of the mechanical behavior of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The numerical simulation was performed on basis of a molecular mechanics approach. Within this approach two different issues were taken into account: (i) the nanotube geometry and (ii) the modeling of the covalent bond. The nanotube geometry is captured by two different approaches, the roll-up and the exact polyhedral model. The covalent bond is modeled by a structural molecular mechanics approach according to Li and Chou. After a short introduction in the applied modeling techniques, the results for the Young\'s modulus for several SWCNTs are presented and are discussed extensively. The obtained numerical results are compared to results available in literature and show an excellent agreement. Furthermore, deviations in the geometry stemming from the different models are given and the resulting differences in the numerical findings are shown. Within the investigation of the deformation mechanisms occurring in SWCNTs, the basic contributions of each individual covalent bond are considered. The presented results of this decomposition provide a deeper understanding of the governing deformation mechanisms in SWCNTs.

Key Words
carbon nanotube; single wall nanotube; molecular mechanics; mechanical properties; modeling

Address
Oliver Eberhardt and Thomas Wallmersperger:Institut für Festkörpermechanik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Bähr-Strabe 3c, 01069 Dresden,Germany

Abstract
In this paper the system dynamic influences in actuators with variable stiffness as contemporary used in robotics for safety and efficiency reasons are investigated. Therefore, different configurations of serial and parallel elasticities are modeled by dynamic equations and linearized transfer functions. The latter ones are used to identify the characteristic behavior of the different systems and to study the effect of the different elasticities. As such actuation concepts are often used to reach energy-efficient operation, a power consumption analysis of the configurations is performed. From the comparison of this with the system dynamics, strategies to select and control stiffness are derived. Those are based on matching the natural frequencies or antiresonance modes of the actuation system to the frequency of the trajectory. Results show that exclusive serial and parallel elasticity can minimize power consumption when tuning the system to the natural frequencies. Antiresonance modes are an additional possibility for stiffness control in the series elastic setup. Configurations combining both types of elasticities do not provide further advantages regarding power reduction but an input parallel elasticity might enable for more versatile stiffness selection. Yet, design and control effort increase in such solutions. Topologies incorporating output parallel elasticity showed not to be beneficial in the chosen example but might do so in specific applications.

Key Words
variable stiffness; series elastic actuation; parallel elastic actuation; elastic joints; dimensioning; control; robotics; system dynamics

Address
Philipp Beckerle and Stephan Rinderknecht:Institute for Mechatronic Systems in Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Petersenstra


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2017 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-42-828-7997, Email: info@techno-press.com