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CONTENTS
Volume 16, Number 6, December 2015
 

Abstract
For vibration control of civil structures, especially large civil structures, one of the important issues is how to place a minimal number of actuators and sensors at their respective optimal locations to achieve the predetermined control performance. In this paper, a methodology is presented for the determination of the minimal number and optimal location of actuators and sensors for vibration control of building structures under earthquake excitation. In the proposed methodology, the number and location of the actuators are first determined in terms of the sequence of performance index increments and the predetermined control performance. A multi-scale response reconstruction method is then extended to the controlled building structure for the determination of the minimal number and optimal placement of sensors with the objective that the reconstructed structural responses can be used as feedbacks for the vibration control while the predetermined control performance can be maintained. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed methodology are finally investigated numerically through a 20-story shear building structure under the El-Centro ground excitation and the Kobe ground excitation. The numerical results show that with the limited number of sensors and actuators at their optimal locations, the predetermined control performance of the building structure can be achieved.

Key Words
vibration control; building structure; actuator placement; sensor placement; performance index increment; multi-scale response reconstruction

Address
Jia He, You-Lin Xu, Chao-Dong Zhang and Xiao-Hua Zhang: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China

Abstract
MR dampers have been proposed for the control of cable vibration of cable-stayed bridge in recent years due to their high performance and low energy consumption. However, the highly nonlinear feature of MR dampers makes them difficult to be designed with efficient semi-active control algorithms. Simulation study has previously been carried out on the cable-MR damper system using a semi-active control algorithm derived based on the universal design curve of dampers and a bilinear mechanical model of the MR damper. This paper aims to verify the effectiveness of the MR damper for mitigating cable vibration through a full-scale experimental test, using the same semi-active control strategy as in the simulation study. A long stay cable fabricated for a real bridge was set-up with the MR damper installed. The cable was excited under both free and forced vibrations. Different test scenarios were considered where the MR damper was tuned as passive damper with minimum or maximum input current, or the input current of the damper was changed according to the proposed semi-active control algorithm. The effectiveness of the MR damper for controlling the cable vibration was assessed through computing the damping ratio of the cable for free vibration and the root mean square value of acceleration of the cable for forced vibration.

Key Words
MR damper; semi-active control; vibration mitigation of cable; full scale cable test

Address
Hongwei Huang: State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Jiangyun Liu: China Resources Land (Wuhan) Limited, Hubei, China
Limin Sun: Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Abstract
In this study, the optimal location of the MR fluid segments in a partially treated laminated composite sandwich plate has been identified to maximize the natural frequencies and the loss factors. The finite element formulation is used to derive the governing differential equations of motion for a partially treated laminated composite sandwich plate embedded with MR fluid and rubber material as the core layer and laminated composite plate as the face layers. An optimization problem is formulated and solved by combining finite element analysis (FEA) and genetic algorithm (GA) to obtain the optimal locations to yield maximum natural frequency and loss factor corresponding to first five modes of flexural vibration of the sandwich plate with various combinations of weighting factors under various boundary conditions. The proposed methodology is validated by comparing the natural frequencies evaluated at optimal locations of MR fluid pockets identified through GA coupled with FEA and the experimental measurements. The converged results suggest that the optimal location of MR fluid pockets is strongly influenced not only by the boundary conditions and modes of vibrations but also by the objectives of maximization of natural frequency and loss factors either individually or combined. The optimal layout could be useful to apply the MR fluid pockets at critical components of large structure to realize more efficient and compact vibration control mechanism with variable damping.

Key Words
composites; MR fluid; MR fluid Sandwich plate; FEA; vibration; optimization

Address
R. Manoharan, R. Vasudevanand A.K. Jeevanantham: School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore - 632014, India

Abstract
In the paper, the authors propose the application of operational deflection shapes (ODS) for the detection of structural changes in technical objects. The ODS matrix is used to formulate the spatial filter that is further used for damage detection as a classical modal filter (Meirovitch and Baruh 1982, Zhang et al. 1990). The advantage of the approach lies in the fact that no modal analysis is required, even on the reference spatial filter formulation and other components apart from structural ones can be filtered (e.g. harmonics of rotational velocity). The proposed methodology was tested experimentally on a laboratory stand, a frame-like structure, excited from two sources: an impact hammer, which provided a wide-band excitation of all modes, and an electro-dynamic shaker, which simulated a harmonic component in the output spectra. The damage detection capabilities of the proposed method were tested by changing the structural properties of the model and comparing the results with the original ones. The quantitative assessment of damage was performed by employing a damage index (DI) calculation. Comparison of the output of the ODS filter and the classical modal filter is also presented and analyzed in the paper. The closing section of the paper describes the verification of the method on a real structure – a road viaduct.

Key Words
modal filter; spatial filter; operational deflection shapes; damage detection

Address
Krzysztof Mendrok, Jeremi Wójcicki and Tadeusz Uhl: Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, AGH University of Science and Technology Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Krakow, Poland


Abstract
Arch bridges consist of some important components for structural behavior such as arches, sidewalls, filling materials and foundations. But, arches are the most important part for this type of bridges. For this reason, investigation of arch is come into prominence. In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the arch thickness effect on the structural behavior of masonry arch bridges. For this purpose, Göderni historical arch bridge which was located in Kulp town, Diyarbakir Turkey and the bridge restoration process has still continued is selected as an application. The construction year of the bridge is not fully known, but the date is estimated to be the second half of the 19th century. The bridge has two arches with the 0.52 cm and 0.69 cm arch thickness, respectively. Finite element model of the bridge is constructed with ANSYS software to reflect the current situation using relievo drawings. Then the arch thickness is changed by increasing and decreasing respectively and finite element models are reconstructed. The structural responses of the bridge are obtained for all arch thickness under dead load and live load. Maximum displacements, maximum-minimum principal stresses and maximum-minimum elastic strains are given with detail using contours diagrams and compared with each other to determine the arch thickness effect. At the end of the study, it is seen that the maximum displacements, tensile stresses and strains have a decreasing trend, but compressive stress and strain have an increasing trend by the increasing of arch thickness.

Key Words
arch bridge; arch thickness; finite element model; structural response

Address
Ahmet C. Altunisik, Burcu Kanbur: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, TurkeyAli F. Genc: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Of Technology Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey

Abstract
Piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant of PZT-5H vary with electric field. In this work, variations of these coefficients with electric field are included in finite element modelling of a cantilevered plate instrumented with piezoelectric patches. Finite element model is reduced using modal truncation and then converted into state-space. First three modal displacements and velocities are estimated using Kalman observer. Negative first modal velocity feedback is used to control the vibrations of the smart plate. Three cases are considered v.i.z case 1: in which variation of piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant with electric field is not considered in finite element model and not considered in Kalman observer, case 2: in which variation of piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant with electric field is considered in finite element model and not considered in Kalman observer and case 3: in which variation of piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant with electric field is considered in finite element model as well as in Kalman observer. Simulation results show that appreciable amount of change would appear if variation of piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant with r.m.s. value of electric field is considered.

Key Words
active vibration control; finite element modelling; piezoelectric; Kalman; smart structure

Address
Sukesha Sharma and Renu Vig: UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Navin Kumar:IIT Ropar, Punjab, India

Abstract
A damage detection algorithm based on neuro fuzzy hybrid system is presented in this study for location and severity predictions of cracks in beam-like structures. A combination of eigenfrequencies and rotation deviation curves are utilized as input to the soft computing technique. Both single and multiple damage cases are considered. Theoretical expressions leading to modal properties of damaged beam elements are provided. The beam formulation is based on Euler-Bernoulli theory. The cracked section of beam is simulated employing discrete spring model whose compliance is computed from stress intensity factors of fracture mechanics. A hybrid neuro fuzzy technique is utilized to solve the inverse problem of crack identification. Two different neuro fuzzy systems including grid partitioning (GP) and subtractive clustering (SC) are investigated for the highlighted problem. Several error metrics are utilized for evaluating the accuracy of the hybrid algorithms. The study is the first in terms of 1) using the two models of neuro fuzzy systems in crack detection and 2) considering multiple damages in beam elements employing the fused neuro fuzzy procedures. At the end of the study, the developed hybrid models are tested by utilizing the noise-contaminated data. Considering the robustness of the models, they can be employed as damage identification algorithms in health monitoring of beam-like structures

Key Words
neuro fuzzy system; grid partitioning; subtractive clustering; beam; damage detection

Address
Kamil Aydin: Erciyes University, Department of Civil Engineering, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey
Ozgur Kisi: Canik Basari University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ilkadim, 55080 Samsun, Turkey


Abstract
A new neural network (NN) predictive controller (NNPC) algorithm has been developed and tested in the computer simulation of active control of a nonlinear structure. In the present method an NN is used as a predictor. This NN has been trained to predict the future response of the structure to determine the control forces. These control forces are calculated by minimizing the difference between the predicted and desired responses via a numerical minimization algorithm. Since the NNPC is very time consuming and not suitable for real-time control, it is then used to train an NN controller. To consider the effectiveness of the controller on probability of damage, fragility curves are generated. The approach is validated by using simulated response of a 3 story nonlinear benchmark building excited by several historical earthquake records. The simulation results are then compared with a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) active controller. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm is completely effective in relative displacement reduction.

Key Words
structural control; active controller; neural network controller; neuro-predictive algorithm; model predictive control (MPC); fragility curves

Address
Amir Baghban, Abbas Karamodinand Hasan Haji-Kazemi: Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran

Abstract
Wireless smart sensors, which have become popular for monitoring applications, are an attractive option for implementing structural control systems, due to their onboard sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. However, wireless smart sensors pose inherent challenges for control, including delays from communication, acquisition hardware, and processing time. Previous research in wireless control, which focused on semi-active systems, has found that sampling rate along with time delays can significantly impact control performance. However, because semi-active systems are guaranteed stable, these issues are typically neglected in the control design. This work achieves active control with smart sensors in an experimental setting. Because active systems are not inherently stable, all the elements of the control loop must be addressed, including data acquisition hardware, processing performance, and control design at slow sampling rates. The sensing hardware is shown to have a significant impact on the control design and performance. Ultimately, the smart sensor active control system achieves comparable performance to the traditional tethered system.

Key Words
smart sensors; structural control; discrete-time control design

Address
Lauren E. Linderman: Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- Engineering, University of Minnesota,
500 Pillsbury Drive S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Billie F. Spencer Jr.: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois,
205 N. Mathews Ave., Urbana, IL 61801, USA



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