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CONTENTS
Volume 3, Number 1, January 2007
 

Abstract
The energy efficiency of a self-powered wireless sensing system for pressure monitoring in injection molding is analyzed using Bond graph models. The sensing system, located within the mold cavity, consists of an energy converter, an energy modulator, and a ultrasonic signal transmitter. Pressure variation in the mold cavity is extracted by the energy converter and transmitted through the mold steel to a signal receiver located outside of the mold, in the form of ultrasound pulse trains. Through Bond graph models, the energy efficiency of the sensing system is characterized as a function of the configuration of a piezoceramic stack within the energy converter, the pulsing cycle of the energy modulator, and the thicknesses of the various layers that make up the ultrasonic signal transmitter. The obtained energy models are subsequently utilized to identify the minimum level of signal intensity required to ensure successful detection of the ultrasound pulse trains by the signal receiver. The Bond graph models established have shown to be useful in optimizing the design of the various constituent components within the sensing system to achieve high energy conversion efficiency under a compact size, which are critical to successful embedment within the mold structure.

Key Words
Bond graph modeling; self-powered sensing; energy efficiency of sensors; condition monitoring of manufacturing process.

Address
Yong Cui, Robert X. Gao and Dengfeng Yang; Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
David O. Kazmer; Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854, USA

Abstract
Wavelet transforms are the emerging signal-processing tools for damage identification and time-frequency localization. A small perturbation in a static or dynamic displacement profile could be captured using multi-resolution technique of wavelet analysis. The paper presents the wavelet analysis of damaged linear structural elements using DB4 or BIOR6.8 family of wavelets. Starting with a localized reduction of EI at the mid-span of a simply supported beam, damage modeling is done for a typical steel and reinforced concrete beam element. Rotation and curvature mode shapes are found to be the improved indicators of damage and when these are coupled with wavelet analysis, a clear picture of damage singularity emerges. In the steel beam, the damage is modeled as a rotational spring and for an RC section, moment curvature relationship is used to compute the effective EI. Wavelet analysis is performed for these damage models for displacement, rotation and curvature mode shapes as well as static deformation profiles. It is shown that all the damage indicators like displacement, slope and curvature are magnified under higher modes. A localization scheme with arbitrary location of curvature nodes within a pseudo span is developed for steady state dynamic loads, such that curvature response and damages are maximized and the scheme is numerically tested and proved.

Key Words
wavelet transforms; damage identification; modal parameters; enhanced damage indicators.

Address
N. Lakshmanan; Structural Engineering Research Centre, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai, 600113, India
B. K. Raghuprasad; Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012, India
K. Muthumani, N. Gopalakrishnan and D. Basu; Structural Engineering Research Centre, CSIR Campus, Taramani, Chennai, 600113, India

Abstract
High-strength concrete (HSC) is becoming increasingly attractive for various construction projects since it offers a multitude of benefits over normal-strength concrete (NSC). Unfortunately, current design provisions for shear capacity of RC slender beams are generally based on data developed for NSC members having a compressive strength of up to 50 MPa, with limited recommendations on the use of HSC. The failure of HSC beams is noticeably different than that of NSC beams since the transition zone between the cement paste and aggregates is much denser in HSC. Thus, unlike NSC beams in which micro-cracks propagate around aggregates, providing significant aggregate interlock, micro-cracks in HSC are trans-granular, resulting in relatively smoother fracture surfaces, thereby inhibiting aggregate interlock as a shear transfer mechanism and reducing the influence of compressive strength on the ultimate shear strength of HSC beams. In this study, a new approach based on genetic algorithms (GAs) was used to predict the shear capacity of both NSC and HSC slender beams without shear reinforcement. Shear capacity predictions of the GA model were compared to calculations of four other commonly used methods: the ACI method, CSA method, Eurocode-2, and Zsutty

Key Words
genetic algorithms; analysis; high-strength; concrete; beams; prediction; shear.

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B9

Abstract
In this study, Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are investigated as a practical solution to the challenge of designing an optimal platform for implementing algorithms in a wireless sensing unit for structural health monitoring. Inherent advantages, such as tremendous processing power, coupled with reconfigurable and flexible architecture render FPGAs a prime candidate for the processing core in an optimal wireless sensor unit, especially when handling Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and system identification algorithms. This paper presents an effort to create a proof-of-concept unit, wherein an off-the-shelf FPGA development board, available at a price comparable to a microprocessor development board, was adopted. Data processing functions, including windowing, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and peak detection, were implemented in the FPGA using a Matlab Simulink-based high-level abstraction tool rather than hardware descriptive language. Simulations and laboratory tests were carried out to validate the design.

Key Words
smart wireless sensing; FPGA.

Address
Chetan Kapoor; School of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73019-1024, USA
Troy L. Graves-Abe; Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Jin-Song Pei; School of Civil Engineering & Environmental Science, University of Oklahoma Norman, OK 73019-1024, USA

Abstract
Two aspects of the design of a small-scale smart wing are addressed in this work, related to the ability of the wing to modify its cross section assuming the shape of two different airfoils and to the possibility of deflecting the profiles near the trailing edge in order to obtain hingeless control surfaces. The actuation is provided by one-way shape memory alloy wires eventually coupled to springs, Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) being among the most promising materials for this kind of applications. The points to be actuated along the profiles and the displacements to be imposed are selecetd so that they satisfactorily approximate the change from an airfoil to the other and to result in an adequate deflection of the control surface; the actuators and their performances are designed so that an adequate wing stiffness is guaranteed, in order to prevent excessive deformations and undesired airfoil shape variations due to aerodynamic loads. The effect of the pressure distributions, calculated by way of the XFOIL software, and of the actuators loads, is estimated by FE analyses of the loaded wing. Two prototypes are then realised incorporating the variable airfoil and the hingeless aileron features respectively, and the verification of their shapes in both the actuated and non-actuated states, supported by image analysis techniques, confirms that interesting results are achievable with the proposed lay out and design considerations.

Key Words
Shape Memory Alloy; adaptive wing; hingeless wing; SMA actuator; compliant structure; finite element method; image analysis.

Address
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e Meccanica, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 19,
95125 - Catania, Italy

Abstract
The electromechanical integrated toroidal drive is a new drive system. For the control of the drive, the torque fluctuation and the steady-state errors should be removed and the fast response to the input change should be achieved. In this paper, the torque fluctuation of the drive system is analyzed and expressed as Fourier series forms. The transfer function of the torque control for the drive system is derived from its electromechanical coupled dynamic equations. A 2-DOF control method is used to control the drive system. Using definite parameter relationship of the 2-DOF control system, the steady errors of the torque control for the drive system is removed. Influences of the drive parameters on the control system are investigated. Using proper drive parameters, the response time of the control system is reduced and the quick torque response of the drive system is realized. Using a compensated input voltage, the torque fluctuation of the drive system is removed as well. The compensated input voltage can be obtained from the torque fluctuation equation and the transfer function. These research results are useful for designing control system of the new drive.

Key Words
toroidal drive; electromechanical integration; torque control; double freedom degree control.

Address
Mechanical Engineering Institute, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China


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