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CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 3, May 2008
 

Abstract
The modeling and parameter estimation of a damped one-degree-of-freedom mass-spring system is examined. This paper presents a method for estimating the system parameters (damping coefficients and natural frequency) from measured free-vibration motion of a system that is modeled to include both subcritical viscous damping and kinetic Coulomb friction. The method applies a commercially available least-squares curve-fitting software function to fit the known solution of the equations of motion to the measured response. The method was tested through numerical simulation, and it was applied to experimental data collected from a laboratory mass-spring apparatus. The mass of this apparatus translates on linear bearings, which are the primary source of light inherent damping. Results indicate that the curve-fitting method is effective and accurate for both perfect and noisy measurements from a lightly damped mass-spring system.

Key Words
friction oscillator; friction estimation; least-squares; coulomb friction; free vibration.

Address
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24061, USA

Abstract
(Received January 1, 2006, Accepted April 29, 2006) Abstract. Piezoelectric materials have been widely used in ultrasonic nondestructive testing (NDT). PZT ceramics can be used to receive and generate surface acoustic waves. It is a common application to attach PZT transducers to the surface of structures for detecting cracks in nondestructive testing. However, not until recently have piezoelectric polymers attracted more and more attention to be the material for interdigitated (IDT) surface and guided-wave transducers. In this paper, an interdigitated gold-on-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) transducer for actuating and sensing Lamb waves has been introduced. A specific etching technology is employed for making the surface electrodes into a certain finger pattern, the spacings of which yield different single mode responses of Lamb waves. Experiments have been performed on steel and carbon fiber composite plates. Results from PVDF IDT sensors have been compared with those from PZT transducers for verification.

Key Words
surface acoustic waves; PZT transducer; gold-on-PVDF transducer.

Address
Hua Gu; Civil and Materials Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Chicago, 842 W. Taylor St., 2095 ERF, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
George M. Lloyd; ACTA Ins., 2790 Skypark Drive, Suite 310, Torrance, CA 90505, USA
Ming L. Wang; Civil and Materials Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Chicago
842 W. Taylor St., 2095 ERF, Chicago, IL 60607, USA

Abstract
The development of a digital signal processor based prototype is described in relation to continuing efforts for realizing a fully self-contained active sensor system utilizing impedance-based structural health monitoring. The impedance method utilizes a piezoelectric material bonded to the structure under observation to act as both an actuator and sensor. By monitoring the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric material, insights into the health of the structured can be inferred. The active sensing system detailed in this paper interrogates a structure utilizing a self-sensing actuator and a low cost impedance method. Here, all the data processing, storage, and analysis is performed at the sensor location. A wireless transmitter is used to communicate the current status of the structure. With this new low cost, field deployable impedance analyzer, reliance on traditional expensive, bulky, and power consuming impedance analyzers is no longer necessary. A complete power analysis of the prototype is performed to determine the validity of power harvesting being utilized for self-containment of the hardware. Experimental validation of the prototype on a representative structure is also performed and compared to traditional methods of damage detection.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; impedance method; damage detection; digital signal processor; wireless monitoring; wireless sensing unit.

Address
Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,310 Durham Hall Mail Code 0261, Blacksburg VA 24061, USA

Abstract
Identification of the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of a reinforced concrete (RC) bridge pier subjected to earthquake loads is carried out based on acceleration measurements of the earthquake motion and bridge responses. The modified Takeda model is used to describe the hysteretic behavior of the RC pier with a small number of parameters, in which the nonlinear behavior is described in logical forms rather than analytical expressions. Hence, the modified extended Kalman filter is employed to construct the state transition matrix using a finite difference scheme. The sequential modified extended Kalman filter algorithm is proposed to identify the unknown parameters and the state vector separately in two steps, so that the size of the problem for each identification procedure may be reduced and possible numerical problems may be avoided. Mode superposition with a modal sorting technique is also proposed to reduce the size of the identification problem for the nonlinear dynamic system with multi-degrees of freedom. Example analysis is carried out for a continuous bridge with a RC pier subjected to earthquake loads in the longitudinal and transverse directions.

Key Words
sequential modified extended Kalman filter; nonlinear system identification; hysteretic behavior of RC pier; the modified Takeda model; modal sorting; acceleration measurement only.

Address
Kyoung Jae Lee*1,2 and Chung Bang Yun2
1Civil Engineering Team, Daelim Industrial Co. Ltd., 17-5 Yoido-dong, Youngdungpo-gu, Seoul 150-010, Korea
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology,
373-1 Gusong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Korea

Abstract
In this study, the frequency domain method which utilizes the evaluation of changes in the structural mode shape is adopted to identify regions which contain localized damages. Frequency response function (FRF) values corresponding to the modal frequency, analogous to the mode shape coefficients, are used since change in natural frequency of the system is usually insignificant for localized damage. This method requires only few sensors to obtain the dynamic response of the structure at specific locations to determine the FRF via fast-Fourier transform (FFT). Numerical examples of an aluminum plate, which includes damages of varying severity, locations and combinations of multiple locations, are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. An experimental verification of the method is also done using an aluminum plate with two different degrees of damage, namely a half-through notch and a through notch. The inconsistency in attaining the FRF values for practical applications due to varying impact load may be overcome via statistical averaging, although large variations in the loading in terms of the contact duration should still be avoided. Nonetheless, this method needs special attention when the damages induce notable changes in the modal frequency, such as when the damages are of high severity or cover more extensive area or near the boundary where the support condition is modified. This is largely due to the significant decrease in the frequency term compared to the increase in the vibration amplitude. For practical reasons such as the use of limited number of sensors and to facilitate automation, extending the resolution of this method of identification may not be efficient. Hence, methods based on wave propagation can be employed as a complement on the isolated region to provide an accurate localization as well as to trace the geometry of the damage.

Key Words
identify damage regions; mode shape; frequency response function (FRF); fast-Fourier transform (FFT).

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, Singapore 117576

Abstract
Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) are unique materials with a paramount potential for various applications in bridges. The novelty of this material lies in its ability to undergo large deformations and return to its undeformed shape through stress removal (superelasticity) or heating (shape memory effect). In particular, Ni-Ti alloys have distinct thermomechanical properties including superelasticity, shape memory effect, and hysteretic damping. SMA along with sensing devices can be effectively used to construct smart Reinforced Concrete (RC) bridges that can detect and repair damage, and adapt to changes in the loading conditions. SMA can also be used to retrofit existing deficient bridges. This includes the use of external post-tensioning, dampers, isolators and/or restrainers. This paper critically examines the fundamental characteristics of SMA and available sensing devices emphasizing the factors that control their properties. Existing SMA models are discussed and the application of one of the models to analyze a bridge pier is presented. SMA applications in the construction of smart bridge structures are discussed. Future trends and methods to achieve smart bridges are also proposed.

Key Words
smart material; shape memory alloy; superelasticity; shape memory effect; fiber optic sensor; bridge.

Address
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada, N6A 5B9


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