Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


sss
 
CONTENTS
Volume 4, Number 6, November 2008
 

Abstract
.

Key Words
.

Address
.

Abstract
A number of efforts had been sought to instrument bridges for the purpose of structural monitoring and assessment. The outcome of these efforts, as gauged by advances in the understanding of the definition of structural damage and their role in sensor selection as well as in the design of cost and data-effective monitoring systems, has itself been difficult to assess. The authors?experience with the design, calibration, and operation of a monitoring system for the Kishwaukee Bridge in Illinois has provided several lessons that bear upon these concerns. The systems have performed well in providing a continuous, low-cost monitoring platform for bridge engineers with immediate relevant information.

Key Words
bridge health monitoring system; crack opening displacement (COD); bootstrap method; temperature effect.

Address
University of Illinois - Chicago, Chicago, USA

Abstract
A down hole vertical seismic array is a sequence of instruments installed at various depths in the earth to record the ground motion at multiple points during an earthquake. Numerous studies demonstrate the unique utility of vertical seismic arrays for studying in situ site response and soil behavior. Examples are given of analyses made at two sites to show the value of data from vertical seismic arrays. The sites examined are the Lotung, Taiwan SMART1 array and a new site installed at Jingliao, Taiwan. Details of the installation of the Jingliao array are given. ARX models are theoretically the correct process models for vertical wave propagation in the layered earth, and are used to linearly map deeper sensor input signals to shallower sensor output signals. An example of Event 16 at the Lotung array is given. This same data, when examined in detail with a Bayesian inference model, can also be explained by nonlinear filters yielding commonly accepted soil degradation curves. Results from applying an ARMAX model to data from the Jingliao vertical seismic array are presented. Estimates of inter-transducer soil increment resonant frequency, shear modulus, and damping ratio are presented. The shear modulus varied from 50 to 150 MPa, and damping ratio between 8% and 15%. A new hardware monitoring system - TerraScope - is an affordable 4-D down-hole seismic monitoring system based on independent, microprocessor-controlled sensor Pods. The Pods are nominally 50 mm in diameter, and about 120 mm long. An internal 16-bit micro-controller oversees all aspects of instrumentation, eight programmable gain amplifiers, and local signal storage.

Key Words
system identification; vertical arrays; embedded systems; time series; MEMS sensors.

Address
Steven D. Glaser; Department Civil and Environmental Eng., University of California, Berkeley CA, 94720, USA
Sheng-Huoo Ni and Chi-Chih Ko; Department of Civil Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Abstract
(Received June 13, 2007, Accepted April 29, 2008) Abstract. The research field of structural control has evolved from the development of passive devices since 1970s, through the intensive investigation on active systems in 1980s, to the recent studies of semi-active control systems in 1990s. Currently semi-active control is considered most promising in civil engineering applications. However, actual implementation of semi-active devices is still limited due mainly to their system maintenance and associated long-term reliability as a result of power requirement. In this paper, the concept of functionally upgraded passive devices is introduced to streamline some of the state-of-the-art researches and guide the development of new passive devices that can mimic the function of their corresponding semi-active control devices for various applications. The general characteristics of this special group of passive devices are discussed and representative examples are summarized. Their superior performances are illustrated with cyclic and shake table tests of two example devices: mass-variable tuned liquid damper and friction-pendulum bearing with a variable sliding surface curvature.

Key Words
functionally upgraded passive device; mass-variable device; tuned liquid damper; particle motion; friction pendulum bearing; variable friction device; and seismic performance.

Address
Genda Chen; Center for Infrastructure Engineering Studies, Missouri University of Science and Technology (formerly University of Missouri-Rolla), Rolla, Missouri, USA
Lyan-Ywan Lu; Department of Construction Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science
& Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Abstract
A wireless sensing system is designed for application to structural monitoring and damage detection applications. Embedded in the wireless monitoring module is a two-tier prediction model, the auto-regressive (AR) and the autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX), used to obtain damage sensitive features of a structure. To validate the performance of the proposed wireless monitoring and damage detection system, two near full scale single-story RC-frames, with and without brick wall system, are instrumented with the wireless monitoring system for real time damage detection during shaking table tests. White noise and seismic ground motion records are applied to the base of the structure using a shaking table. Pattern classification methods are then adopted to classify the structure as damaged or undamaged using time series coefficients as entities of a damage-sensitive feature vector. The demonstration of the damage detection methodology is shown to be capable of identifying damage using a wireless structural monitoring system. The accuracy and sensitivity of the MEMS-based wireless sensors employed are also verified through comparison to data recorded using a traditional wired monitoring system.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; wireless sensing and monitoring module; damage detection; AR-ARX model.

Address
Kung-Chun Lu* and Chin-Hsiung Loh; National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
Yuan-Sen Yang; National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, Taiwan
Jerome P. Lynch; Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
K. H. Law; Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Abstract
Observer-based fault detection and isolation (FDI) filter design method is a model-based method. By carefully choosing the observer gain, the residual outputs can be projected onto different independent subspaces. Each subspace corresponds to the monitored structural element so that the projected residual will be nonzero when the associated structural element is damaged and zero when there is no damage. The key point of detection filter design is how to find an appropriate observer gain. This problem can be interpreted in a geometric framework and is found to be equivalent to the problem of finding a decentralized static output feedback gain. But, it is still a challenging task to find the decentralized controller by either analytical or numerical methods because its solution set is, generally, non-convex. In this paper, the concept of detection filter and iterative LMI technique for decentralized controller design are combined to develop an algorithm to compute the observer gain. It can be used to monitor structural element state: healthy or damaged. The simulation results show that the developed method can successfully identify structural damages.

Key Words
structural damage detection; decentralized control; iterative LMI technique.

Address
Bilei Chen; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Satish Nagarajaiah; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Material Sciences, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA

Abstract
A challenging problem in structural damage detection based on vibration data is the requirement of a large number of sensors and the numerical difficulty in obtaining reasonably accurate results when the system is large. To address this issue, the substructure identification approach may be used. Due to practical limitations, the response data are not available at all degrees of freedom of the structure and the external excitations may not be measured (or available). In this paper, an adaptive damage tracking technique, referred to as the sequential nonlinear least-square estimation with unknown inputs and unknown outputs (SNLSE-UI-UO) and the sub-structure approach are used to identify damages at critical locations (hot spots) of the complex structure. In our approach, only a limited number of response data are needed and the external excitations may not be measured, thus significantly reducing the number of sensors required and the corresponding computational efforts. The accuracy of the proposed approach is illustrated using a long-span truss with finite-element formulation and an 8-story nonlinear base-isolated building. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach is capable of tracking the local structural damages without the global information of the entire structure, and it is suitable for local structural health monitoring.

Key Words
local damage identification; local structural health monitoring; substructure technique; adaptive damage tracking.

Address
Hongwei Huang; Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China
Jann N. Yang; Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA

Abstract
Real-time hybrid testing is an attractive method to evaluate the response of structures under earthquake loads. The method is a variation of the pseudodynamic testing technique in which the experiment is executed in real time, thus allowing investigation of structural systems with time-dependent components. Real-time hybrid testing is challenging because it requires performance of all calculations, application of displacements, and acquisition of measured forces, within a very small increment of time. Furthermore, unless appropriate compensation for time delays and actuator time lag is implemented, stability problems are likely to occur during the experiment. This paper presents an approach for real-time hybrid testing in which time delay/lag compensation is implemented using model-based response prediction. The efficacy of the proposed strategy is verified by conducting substructure real-time hybrid testing of a steel frame under earthquake loads. For the initial set of experiments, a specimen with linear-elastic behavior is used. Experimental results agree well with the analytical solution and show that the proposed approach and testing system are capable of achieving a time-scale expansion factor of one (i.e., real time). Additionally, the proposed method allows accurate testing of structures with larger frequencies than when using conventional time delay compensation methods, thus extending the capabilities of the real-time hybrid testing technique. The method is then used to test a structure with a rate-dependent energy dissipation device, a magnetorheological damper. Results show good agreement with the predicted responses, demonstrating the effectiveness of the method to test rate-dependent components.

Key Words
real-time hybrid testing; delay compensation; substructuring; MR damper.

Address
Juan E. Carrion; Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, Chicago, IL 60604, USA
B.F. Spencer, Jr.; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2213 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, Urbana, IL 61801, USA


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2017 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-42-828-7997, Email: info@techno-press.com