Techno Press


sss
 
CONTENTS
Volume 6, Number 5, July-August 2010
 

Abstract
Wireless smart sensors enable new approaches to improve structural health monitoring (SHM) practices through the use of distributed data processing. Such an approach is scalable to the large number of sensor nodes required for high-fidelity modal analysis and damage detection. While much of the technology associated with smart sensors has been available for nearly a decade, there have been limited numbers of fullscale implementations due to the lack of critical hardware and software elements. This research develops a flexible wireless smart sensor framework for full-scale, autonomous SHM that integrates the necessary software and hardware while addressing key implementation requirements. The Imote2 smart sensor platform is employed, providing the computation and communication resources that support demanding sensor network applications such as SHM of civil infrastructure. A multi-metric Imote2 sensor board with onboard signal processing specifically designed for SHM applications has been designed and validated. The framework software is based on a service-oriented architecture that is modular, reusable and extensible, thus allowing engineers to more readily realize the potential of smart sensor technology. Flexible network management software combines a sleep/wake cycle for enhanced power efficiency with threshold detection for triggering network wide operations such as synchronized sensing or decentralized modal analysis. The framework developed in this research has been validated on a full-scale a cable-stayed bridge in South Korea.

Key Words
smart sensor network; structural health monitoring; full-scale bridge monitoring; service-oriented architecture; Imote2.

Address
Jennifer A. Rice; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA
Kirill Mechitov and Sung-Han Sim; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 N. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Tomonori Nagayama; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Shinae Jang, Robin Kim, Billie F. Spencer, Jr. and Gul Agha; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 N. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Yozo Fujino; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan

Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure using wireless smart sensor networks (WSSNs) has received significant public attention in recent years. The benefits of WSSNs are that they are low-cost, easy to install, and provide effective data management via on-board computation. This paper reports on the deployment and evaluation of a state-of-the-art WSSN on the new Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge in South Korea with a 344-m main span and two 70-m side spans. The central components of the WSSN deployment are the Imote2 smart sensor platforms, a custom-designed multimetric sensor boards, base stations, and software provided by the Illinois Structural Health Monitoring Project (ISHMP) Services Toolsuite. In total, 70 sensor nodes and two base stations have been deployed to monitor the bridge using an autonomous SHM application with excessive wind and vibration triggering the system to initiate monitoring. Additionally, the performance of the system is evaluated in terms of hardware durability, software stability, power consumption and energy harvesting capabilities. The Jindo Bridge SHM system constitutes the largest deployment of wireless smart sensors for civil infrastructure monitoring to date. This deployment demonstrates the strong potential of WSSNs for monitoring of large scale civil infrastructure.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; wireless smart sensor network; cable-stayed bridge; deployment; evaluation.

Address
Shinae Jang and Hongki Jo; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Soojin Cho; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea
Kirill Mechitov; Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois, 201 North Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Jennifer A. Rice; Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
Sung-Han Sim; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Hyung-Jo Jung and Chung-Bang Yun; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea
Billie F. Spencer, Jr.; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Gul Agha; Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois, 201 North Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA

Abstract
This paper analyses the data collected from the 2nd Jindo Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge in Korea that is a structural health monitoring (SHM) international test bed for advanced wireless smart sensors network (WSSN) technology. The SHM system consists of a total of 70 wireless smart sensor nodes deployed underneath of the deck, on the pylons, and on the cables to capture the vibration of the bridge excited by traffic and environmental loadings. Analysis of the data is performed in both the time and frequency domains. Modal properties of the bridge are identified using the frequency domain decomposition and the stochastic subspace identification methods based on the output-only measurements, and the results are compared with those obtained from a detailed finite element model. Tension forces for the 10 instrumented stay cables are also estimated from the ambient acceleration data and compared both with those from the initial design and with those obtained during two previous regular inspections. The results of the data analyses demonstrate that the WSSN-based SHM system performs effectively for this cable-stayed bridge, giving direct access to the physical status of the bridge.

Key Words
wireless smart sensor network; cable-stayed bridge; structural health monitoring; modal identification; cable tension estimation.

Address
Soojin Cho; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea
Hongki Jo and Shinae Jang; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Jongwoong Park, Hyung-Jo Jung and Chung-Bang Yun; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, South Korea
Billie F. Spencer, Jr.; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Ju-Won Seo; Long Span Bridge Research Team, Hyundai Instititue of Construction Technology, 102-4 Mabook-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyounggi-do 449-716, South Korea

Abstract
Wireless smart sensor networks (WSSNs) have been proposed by a number of researchers to evaluate the current condition of civil infrastructure, offering improved understanding of dynamic response through dense instrumentation. As focus moves from laboratory testing to full-scale implementation, the need for multi-hop communication to address issues associated with the large size of civil infrastructure and their limited radio power has become apparent. Multi-hop communication protocols allow sensors to cooperate to reliably deliver data between nodes outside of direct communication range. However, application specific requirements, such as high sampling rates, vast amounts of data to be collected, precise internodal synchronization, and reliable communication, are quite challenging to achieve with generic multi-hop communication protocols. This paper proposes two complementary reliable multi-hop communication solutions for monitoring of civil infrastructure. In the first approach, termed herein General Purpose Multi-hop (GPMH), the wide variety of communication patterns involved in structural health monitoring, particularly in decentralized implementations, are acknowledged to develop a flexible and adaptable any-to-any communication protocol. In the second approach, termed herein Single-Sink Multi-hop (SSMH), an efficient many-to-one protocol utilizing all available RF channels is designed to minimize the time required to collect the large amounts of data generated by dense arrays of sensor nodes. Both protocols adopt the Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol, which provides any-to-any routing and multi-cast capability, and supports a broad range of communication patterns. The proposed implementations refine the routing metric by considering the stability of links, exclude functionality unnecessary in mostly-static WSSNs, and integrate a reliable communication layer with the AODV protocol. These customizations have resulted in robust realizations of multi-hop reliable communication that meet the demands of structural health monitoring.

Key Words
wireless smart sensors; multi-hop communication; structural health monitoring; reliability; dense instrumentation.

Address
Tomonori Nagayama; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Parya Moinzadeh and Kirill Mechitov; Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 N. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Mitsushi Ushita; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Noritoshi Makihata and Masataka Ieiri; JIP Techno Science Corporation, 2-12-11, Nishinakajima, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0011, Japan
Gul Agha; Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 N. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Billie F. Spencer, Jr.; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 205 N. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Yozo Fujino; Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tokyo 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
Ju-Won Seo; Long Span Bridge Research Team, Hyundai Instititue of Construction Technology, 102-4 Mabook-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyounggi-do 449-716, South Korea

Abstract
Wireless structural monitoring systems consist of networks of wireless sensors installed to record the loading environment and corresponding response of large-scale civil structures. Wireless monitoring systems are desirable because they eliminate the need for costly and labor intensive installation of coaxial wiring in a structure. However, another advantageous characteristic of wireless sensors is their installation modularity. For example, wireless sensors can be easily and rapidly removed and reinstalled in new locations on a structure if the need arises. In this study, the reconfiguration of a rapid-to-deploy wireless structural monitoring system is proposed for monitoring short- and medium-span highway bridges. Narada wireless sensor nodes using power amplified radios are adopted to achieve long communication ranges. A network of twenty Narada wireless sensors is installed on the Yeondae Bridge (Korea) to measure the global response of the bridge to controlled truck loadings. To attain acceleration measurements in a large number of locations on the bridge, the wireless monitoring system is installed three times, with each installation concentrating sensors in one localized area of the bridge. Analysis of measurement data after installation of the three monitoring system configurations leads to reliable estimation of the bridge modal properties, including mode shapes.

Key Words
structural monitoring; wireless sensors; modal analysis; smart structures.

Address
Junhee Kim; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward Street, 2380 G. G. Brown Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA
Andrew Swartz; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Jerome P. Lynch; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward Street, 2380 G. G. Brown Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, USA
Jong-Jae Lee; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747, Korea
Chang-Geun Lee; Structural Research Team, Expressway and Transportation Research Institute, Korea Expressway Corporation, 50-5 Sencheok-ri, Dongtan-myeon, Hwaseong-si, Gyenggi-do 445-812, Korea

Abstract
Testing and validation processes are critical tasks in developing a new hardware platform based on a new technology. This paper describes a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of a newly developed MEMS-based wireless sensor node as part of a wireless sensor network (WSN). The sensor node consists of a sensor board with four accelerometers, a thermometer and filtering and digitization units, and a MICAz mote for control, local computation and communication. The experiments include calibration and linearity tests for all sensor channels on the sensor boards, dynamic range tests to evaluate their performance when subjected to varying excitation, noise characteristic tests to quantify the noise floor of the sensor board, and temperature tests to study the behavior of the sensors under changing temperature profiles. The paper also describes a large-scale deployment of the WSN on a long-span suspension bridge, which lasted over three months and continuously collected ambient vibration and temperature data on the bridge. Statistical modal properties of a bridge tower are presented and compared with similar estimates from a previous deployment of sensors on the bridge and finite element models.

Key Words
wireless sensor network; testing and calibration; MEMS; modal analysis; bridge monitoring.

Address
Shamim N. Pakzad; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lehigh University, PA 18015, USA

Abstract
This paper presents the results of a pilot study and verification of a concept of a novel methodology for damage detection and assessment of water distribution system. The unique feature of the proposed noninvasive methodology is the use of accelerometers installed on the pipe surface, instead of pressure sensors that are traditionally installed invasively. Experimental observations show that a sharp change in pressure is always accompanied by a sharp change of pipe surface acceleration at the corresponding locations along the pipe length. Therefore, water pressure-monitoring can be transformed into acceleration-monitoring of the pipe surface. The latter is a significantly more economical alternative due to the use of less expensive sensors such as MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) or other acceleration sensors. In this scenario, monitoring is made for Maximum Pipe Acceleration Gradient (MPAG) rather than Maximum Water Head Gradient (MWHG). This paper presents the results of a small-scale laboratory experiment that serves as the proof of concept of the proposed technology. The ultimate goal of this study is to improve upon the existing SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) by integrating the proposed non-invasive monitoring techniques to ultimately develop the next generation SCADA system for water distribution systems.

Key Words
water pipe monitoring; MEMS sensors; ruptures; wireless sensor network.

Address
Masanobu Shinozuka; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Pai H. Chou and Sehwan Kim; Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, 92697, USA
Hong Rok Kim; Center of Embedded Software Technology, Korea
Debasis Karmakar; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Lu Fei; College of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, China

Abstract
This study proposes a multi-level damage localization strategy to achieve an effective damage detection system for civil infrastructure systems based on wireless sensors. The proposed system is designed for use of distributed computation in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modal identification is achieved using the frequency-domain decomposition (FDD) method and the peak-picking technique. The ASH (angle-between-string-and-horizon) and AS (axial strain) flexibility-based methods are employed for identifying and localizing damage. Fundamentally, the multi-level damage localization strategy does not activate all of the sensor nodes in the network at once. Instead, relatively few sensors are used to perform coarse-grained damage localization; if damage is detected, only those sensors in the potentially damaged regions are incrementally added to the network to perform finer-grained damage localization. In this way, many nodes are able to remain asleep for part or all of the multi-level interrogations, and thus the total energy cost is reduced considerably. In addition, a novel distributed computing strategy is also proposed to reduce the energy consumed in a sensor node, which distributes modal identification and damage detection tasks across a WSN and only allows small amount of useful intermediate results to be transmitted wirelessly. Computations are first performed on each leaf node independently, and the aggregated information is transmitted to one cluster head in each cluster. A second stage of computations are performed on each cluster head, and the identified operational deflection shapes and natural frequencies are transmitted to the base station of the WSN. The damage indicators are extracted at the base station. The proposed strategy yields a WSN-based SHM system which can effectively and automatically identify and localize damage, and is efficient in energy usage. The proposed strategy is validated using two illustrative numerical simulations and experimental validation is performed using a cantilevered beam.

Key Words
wireless sensor network; damage localization; damage detection; structural health monitoring.

Address
Guirong Yan; School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2021, USA
Weijun Guo; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University, Campus Box 1045, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA
Shirley J. Dyke; School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2021, USA
Gregory Hackmann and Chenyang Lu; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Washington University, Campus Box 1045, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA

Abstract
Low-power radio frequency (RF) chip transceiver technology and the associated structural health monitoring platforms have matured recently to enable high-rate, lossless transmission of measurement data across large-scale sensor networks. The intrinsic value of these advanced capabilities is the allowance for high-quality, rapid operational modal analysis of in-service structures using distributed accelerometers to experimentally characterize the dynamic response. From the analysis afforded through these dynamic data sets, structural identification techniques can then be utilized to develop a well calibrated finite element (FE) model of the structure for baseline development, extended analytical structural evaluation, and load response assessment. This paper presents a case study in which operational modal analysis is performed on a three-span prestressed reinforced concrete bridge using a wireless sensor network. The low-power wireless platform deployed supported a high-rate, lossless transmission protocol enabling real-time remote acquisition of the vibration response as recorded by twenty-nine accelerometers at a 256 Sps sampling rate. Several instrumentation layouts were utilized to assess the global multi-span response using a stationary sensor array as well as the spatially refined response of a single span using roving sensors and reference-based techniques. Subsequent structural identification using FE modeling and iterative updating through comparison with the experimental analysis is then documented to demonstrate the inherent value in dynamic response measurement across structural systems using high-rate wireless sensor networks.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; ambient vibration testing; structural identification; bridge dynamics; wireless sensor networks.

Address
Matthew J. Whelan and Michael V. Gangone; Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
Kerop D. Janoyan; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
Neil A. Hoult; Department of Civil Engineering, Queens University, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada
Campbell R. Middleton; Structural Engineering with the Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK
Kenichi Soga; Civil Engineering with the Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK

Abstract
This paper describes the application of a wireless sensor network to a 31 meter-tall medieval tower located in the city of Trento, Italy. The effort is motivated by preservation of the integrity of a set of frescoes decorating the room on the second floor, representing one of most important International Gothic artworks in Europe. The specific application demanded development of customized hardware and software. The wireless module selected as the core platform allows reliable wireless communication at low cost with a long service life. Sensors include accelerometers, deformation gauges, and thermometers. A multi-hop data collection protocol was applied in the software to improve the system flexibility and scalability. The system has been operating since September 2008, and in recent months the data loss ratio was estimated as less than 0.01%. The data acquired so far are in agreement with the prediction resulting a priori from the 3-dimensional FEM. Based on these data a Bayesian updating procedure is employed to real-time estimate the probability of abnormal condition states. This first period of operation demonstrated the stability and reliability of the system, and its ability to recognize any possible occurrence of abnormal conditions that could jeopardize the integrity of the frescos.

Key Words
wireless sensor network; fiber optic sensors; structural health monitoring; Bayesian analysis; historic construction.

Address
Daniele Zonta, Huayong Wu, Matteo Pozzi and Paolo Zanon; Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, 38123 Trento, Italy
Matteo Ceriotti; IRST, Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy
Luca Mottola; Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Isafjordsgatan 22/Kistagagen 16, 16440 Kista, Sweden
Gian Pietro Picco; DISI, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123, Trento, Italy
Amy L. Murphy; IRST, Bruno Kessler Foundation, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Trento, Italy
Stefan Guna; DISI, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123, Trento, Italy
Michele Corra; Tretec S.r.l., Via Solteri 38, 38121 Trento, Italy

Abstract
There is increasing interest in using structural monitoring as a cost effective way of managing risks once an area of concern has been identified. However, it is challenging to deploy an effective, reliable, large-scale, long-term and real-time monitoring system in an underground railway environment (subway / metro). The use of wireless sensor technology allows for rapid deployment of a monitoring scheme and thus has significant potential benefits as the time available for access is often severely limited. This paper identifies the critical factors that should be considered in the design of a wireless sensor network, including the availability of electrical power and communications networks. Various issues facing underground deployment of wireless sensor networks will also be discussed, in particular for two field case studies involving networks deployed for structural monitoring in the Prague Metro and the London Underground. The paper describes the network design, the radio propagation, the network topology as well as the practical issues involved in deploying a wireless sensor network in these two tunnels.

Key Words
tunnel; wireless sensor network; monitoring.

Address
Peter J. Bennett and Kenichi Soga; Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
Ian Wassell; Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, William Gates Building, 15 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FD, UK
Paul Fidler; Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
Keita Abe and Yusuke Kobayashi; Japan Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan
Martin Vanicek; Czech Technical University in Prague, Zikova 4, 166 36, Prague 6, Czech Republic

Abstract
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) gradually becomes a technique for ensuring the health and safety of civil infrastructures and is also an important approach for the research of the damage accumulation and disaster evolving characteristics of civil infrastructures. It is attracting prodigious research interests and the active development interests of scientists and engineers because a great number of civil infrastructures are planned and built every year in mainland China. In a SHM system the sheer number of accompanying wires, fiber optic cables, and other physical transmission medium is usually prohibitive, particularly for such structures as offshore platforms and long-span structures. Fortunately, with recent advances in technologies in sensing, wireless communication, and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), wireless sensor technique has been developing rapidly and is being used gradually in the SHM of civil engineering structures. In this paper, some recent advances in the research, development, and implementation of wireless sensors for the SHM of civil infrastructures in mainland China, especially in Dalian University of Technology (DUT) and Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), are introduced. Firstly, a kind of wireless digital acceleration sensors for structural global monitoring is designed and validated in an offshore structure model. Secondly, wireless inclination sensor systems based on Frequency-hopping techniques are developed and applied successfully to swing monitoring of large-scale hook structures. Thirdly, wireless acquisition systems integrating with different sensing materials, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride(PVDF), strain gauge, piezoresistive stress/strain sensors fabricated by using the nickel powder-filled cement-based composite, are proposed for structural local monitoring, and validating the characteristics of the above materials. Finally, solutions to the key problem of finite energy for wireless sensors networks are discussed, with future works also being introduced, for example, the wireless sensor networks powered by corrosion signal for corrosion monitoring and rapid diagnosis for large structures.

Key Words
wireless sensor network; structural health monitoring; civil infrastructure; energy optimization; wireless digital acceleration sensor; wireless inclination sensor; MEMS; PVDF; cement-based sensor.

Address
Yan Yu; School of Electronic Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian,116024, P.R. China
Jinping Ou; School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, No. 2 Linggong Rd., Dalian, 116024, P.R. China
Hui Li; School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, P.R. China

Abstract
This paper presents recent developments in an extremely compact, wireless impedance sensor node (the WID3, Wireless Impedance Device) for use in high-frequency impedance-based structural health monitoring (SHM), sensor diagnostics and validation, and low-frequency (< ~1 kHz) vibration data acquisition. The WID3 is equipped with an impedance chip that can resolve measurements up to 100 kHz, a frequency range ideal for many SHM applications. An integrated set of multiplexers allows the end user to monitor seven piezoelectric sensors from a single sensor node. The WID3 combines on-board processing using a microcontroller, data storage using flash memory, wireless communications capabilities, and a series of internal and external triggering options into a single package to realize a truly comprehensive, self-contained wireless active-sensor node for SHM applications. Furthermore, we recently extended the capability of this device by implementing low-frequency analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters so that the same device can measure structural vibration data. The compact sensor node collects relatively low-frequency acceleration measurements to estimate natural frequencies and operational deflection shapes, as well as relatively high-frequency impedance measurements to detect structural damage. Experimental results with application to SHM, sensor diagnostics and low-frequency vibration data acquisition are presented.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; impedance method; piezoelectric active-sensors; sensor diagnostics; wireless hardware.

Address
Stuart G. Taylor, Kevin M. Farinholt and Gyuhae Park; The Engineering Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545, USA
Michael D. Todd; Department of Structural Engineering, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093, USA
Charles R. Farrar; The Engineering Institute, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545, USA

Abstract
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is the science and technology of monitoring and assessing the condition of aerospace, civil and mechanical infrastructures using a sensing system integrated into the structure. Impedance-based SHM measures impedance of a structure using a PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) patch. This paper presents a low-power wireless autonomous and active SHM node called Autonomous SHM Sensor 2 (ASN-2), which is based on the impedance method. In this study, we incorporated three methods to save power. First, entire data processing is performed on-board, which minimizes radio transmission time. Considering that the radio of a wireless sensor node consumes the highest power among all modules, reduction of the transmission time saves substantial power. Second, a rectangular pulse train is used to excite a PZT patch instead of a sinusoidal wave. This eliminates a digital-to-analog converter and reduces the memory space. Third, ASN-2 senses the phase of the response signal instead of the magnitude. Sensing the phase of the signal eliminates an analog-to-digital converter and Fast Fourier Transform operation, which not only saves power, but also enables us to use a low-end low-power processor. Our SHM sensor node ASN-2 is implemented using a TI MSP430 microcontroller evaluation board. A cluster of ASN-2 nodes forms a wireless network. Each node wakes up at a predetermined interval, such as once in four hours, performs an SHM operation, reports the result to the central node wirelessly, and returns to sleep. The power consumption of our ASN-2 is 0.15 mW during the inactive mode and 18 mW during the active mode. Each SHM operation takes about 13 seconds to consume 236 mJ. When our ASN-2 operates once in every four hours, it is estimated to run for about 2.5 years with two AAA-size batteries ignoring the internal battery leakage.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; SHM; wireless sensor node; impedance-based method; temperature compensation.

Address
Dao Zhou and Dong Sam Ha; Center for Embedded Systems for Critical Applications (CESCA), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
Daniel J. Inman; Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (CIMSS), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Abstract
In this paper, a low cost, low power but multifunctional wireless sensor node is presented for the impedance-based SHM using piezoelectric sensors. Firstly, a miniaturized impedance measuring chip device is utilized for low cost and low power structural excitation/sensing. Then, structural damage detection/sensor selfdiagnosis algorithms are embedded on the on-board microcontroller. This sensor node uses the power harvested from the solar energy to measure and analyze the impedance data. Simultaneously it monitors temperature on the structure near the piezoelectric sensor and battery power consumption. The wireless sensor node is based on the TinyOS platform for operation, and users can take MATLAB interface for the control of the sensor node through serial communication. In order to validate the performance of this multifunctional wireless impedance sensor node, a series of experimental studies have been carried out for detecting loose bolts and crack damages on lab-scale steel structural members as well as on real steel bridge and building structures. It has been found that the proposed sensor nodes can be effectively used for local wireless health monitoring of structural components and for constructing a low-cost and multifunctional SHM system as place and forget wireless sensors.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; piezoelectric sensor; electromechanical impedance; wireless sensor node; multifunctional system.

Address
Jiyoung Min; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, South Korea
Seunghee Park; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea
Chung-Bang Yun; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, KAIST, South Korea
Byunghun Song; RFID-USN Convergence Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, South Korea

Abstract
This study presents the design of autonomous smart sensor nodes for damage monitoring of tendons and girders in prestressed concrete (PSC) bridges. To achieve the objective, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, acceleration-based and impedance-based smart sensor nodes are designed for global and local structural health monitoring (SHM). Secondly, global and local SHM methods which are suitable for damage monitoring of tendons and girders in PSC bridges are selected to alarm damage occurrence, to locate damage and to estimate severity of damage. Thirdly, an autonomous SHM scheme is designed for PSC bridges by implementing the selected SHM methods. Operation logics of the SHM methods are programmed based on the concept of the decentralized sensor network. Finally, the performance of the proposed system is experimentally evaluated for a lab-scaled PSC girder model for which a set of damage scenarios are experimentally monitored by the developed smart sensor nodes.

Key Words
autonomous; wireless; smart sensor node; prestressed concrete bridge; structural health monitoring.

Address
Jae-Hyung Park, Jeong-Tae Kim and Dong-Soo Hong; Department of Ocean Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea
David Mascarenas; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, USA
Jerome Peter Lynch; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, USA

Abstract
Impact detection and health monitoring are very important tasks for civil infrastructures, such as bridges. Piezoceramic based transducers are widely researched for these tasks due to the piezoceramic material inherent advantages of dual sensing and actuation ability, which enables the active sensing method for structural health monitoring with a network of piezoceramic transducers. Wireless sensor networks, which are easy for deployment, have great potential in health monitoring systems for large civil infrastructures to identify early-age damages. However, most commercial wireless sensor networks are general purpose and may not be optimized for a network of piezoceramic based transducers. Wireless networks of piezoceramic transducers for active sensing have special requirements, such as relatively high sampling rate (at a few-thousand Hz), incorporation of an amplifier for the piezoceramic element for actuation, and low energy consumption for actuation. In this paper, a wireless network is specially designed for piezoceramic transducers to implement impact detection and active sensing for structural health monitoring. A power efficient embedded system is designed to form the wireless sensor network that is capable of high sampling rate. A 32 bit RISC wireless microcontroller is chosen as the main processor. Detailed design of the hardware system and software system of the wireless sensor network is presented in this paper. To verify the functionality of the wireless sensor network, it is deployed on a two-story concrete frame with embedded piezoceramic transducers, and the active sensing property of piezoceramic material is used to detect the damage in the structure. Experimental results show that the wireless sensor network can effectively implement active sensing and impact detection with high sampling rate while maintaining low power consumption by performing offline data processing and minimizing wireless communication.

Key Words
wireless sensor network; impact detection; structural health monitoring; embedded system; piezoceramic sensor.

Address
Peng Li, Haichang Gu and Gangbing Song; Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, USA
Rong Zheng; Department of Computer Science, University of Houston, USA
YL Mo; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Houston, USA

Abstract
There are on-going efforts to utilize guided waves for structural damage detection. Active sensing devices such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT) have been widely used for guided wave generation and sensing. In addition, there has been increasing interest in adopting wireless sensing to structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. One of major challenges in wireless SHM is to secure power necessary to operate the wireless sensors. However, because active sensing devices demand relatively high electric power compared to conventional passive sensors such as accelerometers and strain gauges, existing battery technologies may not be suitable for long-term operation of the active sensing devices. To tackle this problem, a new wireless power transmission paradigm has been developed in this study. The proposed technique wirelessly transmits power necessary for PZT-based guided wave generation using laser and optoelectronic devices. First, a desired waveform is generated and the intensity of the laser source is modulated accordingly using an electro-optic modulator (EOM). Next, the modulated laser is wirelessly transmitted to a photodiode connected to a PZT. Then, the photodiode converts the transmitted light into an electric signal and excites the PZT to generate guided waves on the structure where the PZT is attached to. Finally, the corresponding response from the sensing PZT is measured. The feasibility of the proposed method for wireless guided wave generation has been experimentally demonstrated.

Key Words
wireless power transmission; laser; optoelectronics; active sensing; guided wave generation.

Address
Hyun-Jun Park, Hoon Sohn and Chung-Bang Yun; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea
Joseph Chung; Senior Manager, R&D Department, CyTroniq. Co. Ltd., Hoseo University, Sechul-ri, Baebang-myun, Asan, Korea
Il-Bum Kwon; Center for Safety Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Doryong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Korea


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2014 Techno Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-42-828-7997, Email: technop@chol.com