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CONTENTS
Volume 1, Number 1, March 1998
 

Abstract
This paper describes wind investigations for the Leaning Tower of Pisa which were conducted as part of an overall evaluation of its behaviour. Normally a short, stiff and heavy building would not be a candidate for detailed wind analyses. However, because of extremely high soil pressures developed from its inclination, there has been increasing concern that environmental loading such as wind actions could combine with existing conditions to cause the collapse of the tower. The studies involved wind assessment at the site as a function of wind direction, analysis of historical wind data to determine extreme wind probabilities of occurrence, estimation of structural properties, analytical and boundary layer wind tunnel investigations of wind loads and evaluation of the response with special concern for loads in the direction of inclination of the tower and significant wake effects from the neighboring cathedral for critical wind directions. The conclusions discuss the role of wind on structural safety, the precision of results attained and possible future studies involving field measurements aimed at validating or improving the analytical and boundary layer wind tunnel based assessments.

Key Words
aerodynamics; dynamic response; Leaning Tower of Pisa; risk assessment; safety; statistical analysis ; wind engineering; wind tunnel tests.

Address
DISEG, Department of Structural and Geotechnical EngineeirngrnUniversity of Genova, via Motallegro 1, 16145 Genova, ItalyrnDepartment of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering and Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, U.S.A.rnDanish Maritime Institute, 99 Hjortekaersvej, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark

Abstract
Improvements to the Gumbel method of extreme value analysis of wind data made over the last two decades are reviewed and illustrated using sample data for Jersey. A new procedure for extending the Gumbel method to include M-the highest annual extremes is shown to be less effective than the standard method, but leads to a method for calibrating peak-over-threshold methods against the standard Gumbel approach. Peak-over-threshold methods that include at least the 3rd highest annual extremes, specifically the modified Jensen and Franck method and the

Key Words
extreme value analysis; anemometers; sub-annual extremes; Gumbel analysis; statistical independence; recurrence.

Address
Wind Engineering Consultant, 10 Arretine Close, St. Albans AL3 4JL, U.K.

Abstract
A three-degree-of-freedom base hinged assembly (BHA) for aeroelastic model tests of tall building was developed. The integral parts of a BHA, which consists of two perpendicular plane frames and a flexural pivot, enable this modeling technique to independently simulate building translational and torsional degree-of-freedom. A program of wind tunnel aeroelastic model tests of the CAARC standard tall building was conducted with emphasis on the effect of (a)torsional motion, (b) cross-wind/torsional frequency ratio and (c) the presence of an eccentricity between center of mass and center of stiffness on wind-induced response characteristics. The experimental results highlight the significant effect of coupled translational-torsional motion and the effect of eccentricity between center of mass and center of stiffness on the resultant rms acceleration responses in both along-wind and cross-wind directions especially at operating reduced wind velocities close to a critical value of 10. In addition, it was sound that the vortex shedding process remains the main excitation mechanism in cross-wind direction even in case of tall buildings with coupled translational-torsional motion and with eccentricity.

Key Words
tall building; coupled motion; aeroelastic modelling technique; cross-wind/torsional frequency ratio; eccentricity; wind-excitation mechanisms.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia

Abstract
The vibrations of bodies subjected to fluid flow can cause modifications in the flow conditions, giving rise to interaction forces that depend primarily on displacements and velocities of the body in question. In this paper the linearized equations of motion for bodies of arbitrary prismatic or cylindrical cross-section in two-dimensional cross-flow are presented, considering the three degrees of freedom of the body cross-section. By restraining the rotational motion, equations applicable to circular tubes, pipes or cables are obtained. These equations can be used to determine stability limits for such structural systems when subjected to non uniform cross-flow, or to evaluate, under the quasi static assumption, their response to vortex or turbulent excitation. As a simple illustration, the stability of a pipe subjected to a bidimensional flow in the direction normal to the pipe axis is examined. It is shown that the approach is extremely powerful, allowing the evaluation of fluid-structure interaction in unidimenstional structural systems, such as straight or curved pipes, cables, etc, by means of either a combined experimental-numerical scheme or through purely numerical methods.

Key Words
linearized equations of motion; uniform cross-flow; quasi static assumption; vortex excitation; fluid-structure interaction.

Address
LDEC/CPGEC/Universida de Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P. 303 Agencia Central, 90001-970-Porto Alegre, RS, BrazilrnENC/FT, Fundcao Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil

Abstract
Tiger Gate Bridge, a steel suspension bridge with a main span of 888m and a stiffening box girder, is located at the Pearl River Estuary, Guangdong, Province, one of the typhoon-prone area in China. Fucusing on the developing of the full aeroelastic model of the bridge and simulation of the wind field of the bridge site in a large boundary wind tunnel at Tongji University, Shanghai, China, some main results about the wind resistant properties of the bridge including aerodynamic instability, buffeting responses both being in operation and erection stages by using of a full aeroelastic model wind tunnel testing are introduced. Some of analytical approaches to those aerodynamic behaviours are also presented, and compared with experimental data of the testing.

Key Words
suspension bridge; wind-resistant property; full aeroelastic model testing; flutter; buffeting.

Address
Department of Bridge Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China

Abstract
An evaluation and comparison of seven of the world

Key Words
gust factor; dynamic wind effects; design codes and standards; alongwind response; acrosswind response; torsional response; turbulence; reliability.

Address
NatHaz Modeling Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, U.S.A.

Abstract
This paper deals with the development of variable-node element and its application to the adaptive h-version mesh refinement-recovery for the incompressible viscous flow analysis. The element which has variable mid-side nodes can be used in generating the transition zone between the refined and unrefined element and efficiently used for the construction of a refined mesh without generating distorted elements. A modified Guassian quadrature is needed to evaluate the element matrices due to the discontinuity of derivatives of the shape functions used for the element. The penalty function method which can reduce the number of the independent variables is adopted for the purpose of computational efficiency and the selective reduced integration is carried out for the convection and pressure terms to preserve the stability of solution. For the economical analysis of transient problems in which the locations to be refined are changed in accordance with the dynamic distribution of velocity gradient, not only the mesh refinement but also the mesh recovery is needed. The numerical examples show that the optimal mesh for the finite element analysis of a wind around the structures can be obtained automatically by the proposed scheme.

Key Words
FEM; variable-nod element; adaptive; refinement; recovery; single-level rule; cavity-flow; bluffbody; transition element.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Korea


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