Techno Press
Tp_Editing System.E (TES.E)
Login Search


was
 
CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 2, March 2008
 

Abstract
A better understanding of tornado-induced wind loads is needed to improve the design of typical structures to resist these winds. An accurate understanding of the loads requires knowledge of near-ground tornado winds, but observations in this region are lacking. The first goal of this study was to verify how well a CFD model, when driven by far field radar observations and laboratory measurements, could capture the flow characteristics of both full scale and laboratory-simulated tornadoes. A second goal was to use the model to examine the sensitivity of the simulations to various parameters that might affect the laboratory simulator tornado. An understanding of near-ground winds in tornadoes will require coordinated efforts in both computational and physical simulation. The sensitivity of computational simulations of a tornado to geometric parameters and surface roughness within a domain based on the Iowa State University laboratory tornado simulator was investigated. In this study, CFD simulations of the flow field in a model domain that represents a laboratory tornado simulator were conducted using Doppler radar and laboratory velocity measurements as boundary conditions. The tornado was found to be sensitive to a variety of geometric parameters used in the numerical model. Increased surface roughness was found to reduce the tangential speed in the vortex near the ground and enlarge the core radius of the vortex. The core radius was a function of the swirl ratio while the peak tangential flow was a function of the magnitude of the total inflow velocity. The CFD simulations showed that it is possible to numerically simulate the surface winds of a tornado and control certain parameters of the laboratory simulator to influence the tornado characteristics of interest to engineers and match those of the field.

Key Words
tornado wind field; CFD simulation; laboratory tornado simulator; Doppler radar observation; tornado-like vortex; near-ground flow.

Address
Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA

Abstract
Wind and wave loadings have a predominant role in the design of offshore structures in general, and articulated tower in particular for a successful service and survival during normal and extreme environmental conditions. Such towers are very sensitive to the dynamic effects of wind and wind generated waves. The exposed superstructure is subjected to aerodynamic loads while the submerged substructure is subjected to hydrodynamic loads. Articulated towers are designed such that their fundamental frequency is well below the wave frequency to avoid dynamic amplification. Dynamic interaction of these towers with environmental loads (wind, waves and currents) acts to impart a lesser overall shear and overturning moment due to compliance to such forces. This compliancy introduces geometric nonlinearity due to large displacements, which becomes an important consideration in the analysis of articulated towers. Prediction of the nonlinear behaviour of these towers in the harsh ocean environment is difficult. However, simplified realistic mathematical models are employed to gain an important insight into the problem and to explore the dynamic behaviour. In this paper, various modeling approaches and solution methods for articulated towers adopted by past researchers are reviewed. Besides, reliability of articulation system, the paper also discussed the design, installation and performance of articulated towers around the world oceans.

Key Words
dynamic behaviour; compliant tower; environmental loads; articulation system; wind induced waves; tankers mooring.

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India

Abstract
The paper is concerned with a comparative study of both the along and cross-wind responses of a tall industrial chimney with and without flexibility of soil. The along-wind response has been estimated by means of approaches presented in three Standards: the Polish, the ISO and the Eurocode and by random vibration approach which is outlined below. The cross-wind response has been estimated by means of the three models developed by Vickery and Basu, Ruscheweyh and Flaga and methods presented in Standards: the Polish, the ISO and the Eurocode (Approach 1 and 2). Computer programmes were developed to obtain estimates of responses of a six-flue, 250 m-tall chimney. The analytical results computed according to the methods presented in different standards and random vibration approaches have been compared. Some unexpected conclusions have been observed.

Key Words
numerical analysis; tall chimney; along and cross-wind responses; flexibility of soil.

Address
Opole University of Technology, ul. Katowicka 48, Opole, Poland

Abstract
This paper discusses engineering aspects of the rear-flank downdraft that was recorded near Lubbock, Texas on 4 June 2002, and produced a gust wind speed nearly equal to the design value (50-year return period) for the region. The general characteristics of the storm, and the decomposition of the time histories into deterministic

Key Words
downdraft; rear-flank; supercell; thunderstorm; turbulence; transmission-line.

Address
J. D. Holmes1,2 and H. M. Hangan2
1JDH Consulting, Mentone, Victoria, 3194 Australia
2University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada
J. L. Schroeder; Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA
C. W. Letchford; University of Tasmania, Private Bag 65, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia
K. D. Orwig; Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA

Abstract
Based on the empirical formulas for power spectra of generalized modal forces and local fluctuating wind forces in across-wind and torsional directions, the wind-induced lateral-torsional coupled response analysis of a representative rectangular tall building was conducted by setting various parameters such as eccentricities in centers of mass and/or rigidity and considering different torsional to lateral stiffness ratios. The eccentricity effects on the lateral-torsional coupled responses of the tall building were studied comprehensively by structural dynamic analysis. Extensive computational results indicated that the torsional responses at the geometric center of the building may be significantly affected by the eccentricities in the centers of mass and/or rigidity. Covariance responses were found to be in the same order of magnitude as the along-wind or across-wind responses in many eccentricity cases, suggesting that the lateral-torsional coupled effects on the overall wind-induced responses can not be neglected for such situations. The calculated results also demonstrated that the torsional motion contributed significantly to the total responses of rectangular tall buildings with mass and/or rigidity eccentricities. It was shown through this study that the framework presented in this paper provides a useful tool to evaluate the wind-induced lateral-torsional coupled responses of rectangular buildings, which will enable structural engineers in the preliminary design stages to assess the serviceability of tall buildings, potential structural vibration problems and the need for a detailed wind tunnel test.

Key Words
tall building; wind-induced vibration; wind tunnel test; dynamic analysis.

Address
J. R. Wu1,2 and Q. S. Li2
1Department of Civil Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
2Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Alex Y. Tuan; Department of Civil Engineering, Tam Kang University, Taipei, Taiwan


Techno-Press: Publishers of international journals and conference proceedings.       Copyright © 2017 Techno-Press
P.O. Box 33, Yuseong, Daejeon 34186 Korea, Tel: +82-42-828-7996, Fax : +82-42-828-7997, Email: info@techno-press.com