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CONTENTS
Volume 18, Number 3, March 2014
 

Abstract
This paper presents a method to extract flutter derivatives of bridge decks based on a combination of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), system simulations and system identifications. The incompressible solver adopts an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation with the finite volume discretization in space. The imposed sectional motion in heaving or pitching relies on exponential time series as input, with aerodynamic forces time histories acting on the section evaluated as output. System identifications are carried out to fit coefficients of the inputs and outputs of ARMA models, as to establish discrete-time aerodynamic models. System simulations of the established models are then performed as to obtain the lift and moment exerting on the sections to a sinusoidal displacement. It follows that flutter derivatives are identified. The present approaches are applied to a hexagon thin plate and a real bridge deck. The results are compared to the Theodorsen closed-form solution and those from wind tunnel tests. Satisfactory agreements are observed.

Key Words
bridge flutter; CFD; discrete-time aerodynamic model; system identification; system simulation

Address
Zhiwen Zhu: Center of Wind Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
Ming Gu: State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China

Abstract
An effective numerical technique to calculate the reactions of a multi-spanned transmission line conductor system, under arbitrary loads varying along the spans, is developed. Such variable loads are generated by High Intensity Wind (HIW) events in the form of tornadoes and downburst. First, a semi-closed form solution is derived to obtain the displacements and the reactions at the ends of each conductor span. The solution accounts for the nonlinearity of the system and the flexibility of the insulators. Second, a numerical scheme to solve the derived closed-form solution is proposed. Two conductor systems are analyzed under loads resulting from HIW events for validation of the proposed technique. Non-linear Finite Element Analyses (FEA) are also conducted for the same two systems. The responses resulting from the technique are shown to be in a very good agreement with those resulting from the FEA, which confirms the technique accuracy. Meanwhile, the semi-closed form technique shows superior efficiency in terms of the required computational time. The saving in computational time has a great advantage in predicting the response of the conductors under HIW events, since this requires a large number of analyses to cover different potential locations and sizes of those localized events.

Key Words
High Intensity Wind (HIW); conductors; cable; finite element; numerical technique; downburst; tornado

Address
Haitham Aboshosha and Ashraf El Damatty: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada

Abstract
The platform and floating structure of spar type offshore wind turbine systems should be designed in order for the 6-DOF motions to be minimized, considering diverse loading environments such as the ocean wave, wind, and current conditions. The objective of this study is to optimally design the platform and substructure of a 3MW spar type wind turbine system with the maximum postural stability in 6-DOF motions as well as the minimum material cost. Therefore, design variables of the platform and substructure were first determined and then optimized by a hydrodynamic analysis. For the hydrodynamic analysis, the body weight of the system was considered, and the ocean wave conditions were quantified to the wave forces using the Morison\'s equation. Moreover, the minimal number of computation analysis models was generated by the Design of Experiments (DOE), and the design variables of the platform and substructure were finally optimized by using a genetic algorithm with a neural network approximation.

Key Words
floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT); multi-objective optimization; hydrodynamic diffraction analysis; response amplitude operators; artificial neural network; genetic algorithm

Address
Ejae Choi, Changwan Han, Hanjong Kim and Seonghun Park: School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea

Abstract
Hydrodynamic analyses of classic and truss spar platforms for floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) were performed in the frequency domain, by considering coupling effects of the structure and its mooring system. Based on the Morison equation and Diffraction theory, different wave loads over various frequency ranges and underlying hydrodynamic equations were calculated. Then, Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) of 6 DOF motions were obtained through the coupled hydrodynamic frequency domain analysis of classic and truss spar-type FOWTs. Truss spar platform had better heave motion performance and less weight than classic spar, while the hydrostatic stability did not show much difference between the two spar platforms.

Key Words
floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT); classic spar platform; truss spar platform; frequency domain; hydrostatic analysis; hydrodynamic analysis; finite element method

Address
Baowei Wang, SajadRahmdel, Changwan Han, Seungbin Jung and Seonghun Park: School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea

Abstract
There are several parameters affecting the response of industrial reinforced concrete (RC) chimneys, i.e., the severity of wind and earthquake loads acting to the structure, structural properties such as height and cross section of the chimney, the slenderness property of the structure etc. One of the most important parameter that should be considered while understanding the wind response of industrial RC chimneys is slenderness property. Although there is no certain definition for slenderness effect on these structures, some standards like ASCE-7 define slenderness from different aspects of the structural properties. In the first part of this study, general information about the definition of slenderness in the well-known standards and ten selected industrial RC chimneys are given. In the second part of the study, brief information about wind load standards that are used for calculating wind loads namely ACI 307/98, CICIND 2001, DIN 1056, TS 498 and Eurocode 1 is given. In the third part of the study, calculated wind loads for selected chimneys are represented. In the fourth part of this study, the internal forces obtained from load combinations that are applied to chimneys and some graphs presenting the effect of slenderness on chimneys are given. In the last part of the study, a conclusion and discussion part is taking place.

Key Words
slenderness; reinforced; concrete; chimney; wind; response

Address
Zeki Karaca: Department of Civil Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, 55139, Samsun, Turkey
Erdem Türkeli: Project Department, Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, 52200, Ordu, Turkey

Abstract
The characteristics of amplitudes and power spectra of X axial, Y axial, and RZ axial (i.e., body axis) wind forces on a 492 m high-rise building with a section varying along height in typical wind directions are studied via a rigid model wind tunnel test of pressure measurement. Then the corresponding mathematical expressions of power spectra of X axial (across-wind), Y axial (along-wind) and torsional wind forces in 315o wind directions are proposed. The investigation shows that the mathematical expressions of wind force spectra of the main structure in across-wind and torsional directions can be constructed by the superimposition of an modified wind spectrum function and a peak function caused by turbulent flow and vortex shedding, respectively. While that in along-wind direction can only be constructed by the former and is similar to wind spectrum. Moreover, the fitted parameters of the wind load spectra of each measurement level of altitude are summarized, and the unified parametric results are obtained. The comparisons of the first three order generalized force spectra show that the proposed mathematical expressions accord with the experimental results well.

Key Words
high-rise building; rigid model wind tunnel test of pressure measurement; wind force spectrum; mathematical expressions; parameters fitting

Address
D.M. Huang: School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China; State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; National Engineering Laboratory for High Speed Railway Construction, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China
L.D. Zhu and W. Chen: State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China


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