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CONTENTS
Volume 24, Number 4, April 2017
 

Abstract
Free transverse vibration of shear deformable super-elliptical plates with uniform thickness was studied based on Mindlin plate theory using finite element method. Quadrilateral isoparametric elements were used in the paper. Sensitivity analysis was made to determine the influence of the thickness, the aspect ratio, and the shape of the plate on the natural frequency. Accuracy of the results computed in the current study was validated by comparing them with the solutions available in the literature. The results reveal that the frequencies of clamped super-elliptical plates lie in the range bounded by elliptical and rectangular plates irrespective of the aspect ratio, and furthermore, the frequency decreases if the super-elliptical power increases. A similar trend was observed for simply supported plates with high aspect ratio. The free vibration response for the first and the second symmetric-antisymmetric (SA) modes were found to be different for high aspect ratio. The results reveal that using insufficient number of degrees of freedom results in finding a totally different relation between the super-elliptical power and the frequency.

Key Words
plate; vibration; frequency; Mindlin; finite element

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34220 Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract
Differing from the fixed-type, the dynamic motion of floating-type offshore wind turbines is very sensitive to wind and wave excitations. Thus, the sensing and monitoring of its motion is important to evaluate the dynamic responses to the external excitation. In this context, a monitoring system for sensing and processing the wind-induced dynamic motion of spar-type floating offshore wind turbine is developed in this study. It is developed by integrating a 1/00 scale model of 2.5MW spar-type floating offshore wind turbine, water basin equipped with the wind generator, sensing and data acquisition systems, real-time CompactRIO controller and monitoring program. The scale model with the upper rotatable blades is installed within the basin by means of three mooring lines, and its translational and rotational motions are detected by 3-axis inclinometer and accelerometers and gyroscope. The detected motion signals are processed using a real-time controller CompactRIO to calculate the acceleration and tilting angle of nacelle and the attitude of floating platform. The developed monitoring system is demonstrated and validated by measuring and evaluating the time histories and trajectories of nacelle and platform motions for three different wind velocities and for eight different fairlead positions.

Key Words
wind turbine; spar-type floating offshore; monitoring system; 1/100 scale model; wind-induced motion and trajectory; wind velocity; fairlead position

Address
C.M. Kim,S.R. Kim: Korea Institute of Industrial Engineering, Gangseo-Gu, Busan 618-230, Korea

J.R. Cho,Y.S. Lee: Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong 339-701, Korea

Abstract
The minimization method is widely used to predict the dynamic characteristics of a system. Generally, data recorded by experiment (for example displacement) tends to contain noise, and the error in the properties of the system is proportional to the noise level (NL). In addition, the accuracy of the results depends on various factors such as the signal character, filtering method or cut off frequency. In particular, coupled terms in multimode systems show larger differences compared to the true value when measured in an environment with a high NL. The iterative least square (ILS) method was proposed to reduce these errors that occur under a high NL, and has been verified in previous research. However, the ILS method might be sensitive to the signal processing, including the determination of cutoff frequency. This paper focused on improving the accuracy of the ILS method, and proposed the modified ILS (MILS) method, which differs from the ILS method by the addition of a new calculation process based on correlation coefficients for each degree of freedom. Comparing the results of these systems with those of a numerical simulation revealed that both ILS and the proposed MILS method provided good prediction of the dynamic properties of the system under investigation (in this case, the damping ratio and damped frequency). Moreover, the proposed MILS method provided even better prediction results for the coupling terms of stiffness and damping coefficient matrix.

Key Words
system identification; flutter derivatives; free vibration

Address
Nakhyun Chun, Hak-Eun Lee: School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea

Jiho Moon: Department of Civil Engineering, Kangwon National University,
Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do 24341, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The Maanshan Bridge over Yangtze River in China is a new long-span suspension bridge with double main spans of 2x1080 m and a closed streamline cross-section of single box deck. The flutter and buffeting performances were investigated via wind tunnel tests of a full bridge aeroelastic model at a geometric scale of 1:211. The tests were conducted in both smooth wind and simulated boundary layer wind fields. Emphasis is placed on studying the interference effect of adjacent span via installing a wind deflector and a wind separating board to shelter one span of the bridge model from incoming flow. Issues related to effects of mid-tower stiffness and deck supporting conditions are also discussed. The testing results show that flutter critical wind velocities in smooth flow, with a wind deflector, are remarkably lower than those without. In turbulent wind, torsional and vertical standard deviations for the deck responses at midspan in testing cases without wind deflector are generally less than those at the midspan exposed to wind in testing cases with wind deflector, respectively. When double main spans are exposed to turbulent wind, the existence of either span is a mass damper to the other. Furthermore, both effects of mid-tower stiffness and deck supporting conditions at the middle tower on the flutter and buffeting performances of the Maanshan Bridge are unremarkable.

Key Words
suspension bridge; double main spans; flutter; buffeting; wind tunnel test; full bridge aeroelastic model

Address
Wen-ming Zhang: Key Laboratory of Concrete and Prestressed Concrete Structures of the Ministry of Education, Southeast University, 2 Sipailou Road, Nanjing 210096, China

Yao-jun Ge: State Key Laboratory for Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China

Abstract
In recent years, the wind energy has played an increasingly important role in national energy sector of many countries. To harvest more electric power, the wind turbine (WT) tower structure becomes physically larger, which may cause more risks during long-term operation. Associated with the great development of WT projects, the number of accidents related to large-scaled WT has also been increased. Therefore, a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for WT structures is needed to ensure their safety and serviceability during operational time. The objective of this study is to develop a hybrid damage detection method for WT tower structures by measuring vibration and impedance responses. To achieve the objective, the following approaches are implemented. Firstly, a hybrid damage detection scheme which combines vibration-based and impedance-based methods is proposed as a sequential process in three stages. Secondly, a series of vibration and impedance tests are conducted on a lab-scaled model of the WT structure in which a set of bolt-loosening cases is simulated for the segmental joints. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed hybrid damage detection method is experimentally evaluated via its performance during the damage detection process in the tested model.

Key Words
structural health monitoring; wind turbine tower; hybrid damage detection system; vibration responses; impedance responses

Address
Tuan-Cuong Nguyen, Thanh-Canh Huynh, Jeong-Tae Kim: Department of Ocean Engineering, Pukyong National University, Nam-gu, Busan, Korea

Jin-Hak Yi: Coastal and Environmental Engineering Division, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do, Korea


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