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CONTENTS
Volume 22, Number 1, September20 2016
 

Abstract
Severe fatigue and noise problems of modular bridge expansion joints (MBEJs) are often induced by vehicle loads. However, the dynamic characteristics of single-support MBEJs have yet to be further investigated. To better understand the vibration mechanism of single-support MBEJs under vehicle loads, a 3D finite element model of single-support MBEJ with five center beams is built. Successive vehicle loads are given out and the vertical dynamic responses of each center beams are analyzed under the successive loads. Dynamic amplification factors (DAFs) are also calculated along with increasing vehicle velocities from 20 km/h to 120 km/h with an interval 20 km/h. The research reveals the vibration mechanism of the single-support MBEJs considering coupled center beam resonance, which shows that dynamic responses of a given center beam will be influenced by the neighboring center beams due to their rebound after the vehicle wheels depart. Maximal DAF 1.5 appears at 120 km/h on the second center beam. The research results can be utilized for reference in the design, operation and maintenance of singlesupport MBEJs.

Key Words
single-support modular bridge expansion joints; vehicle loads; coupled center beam resonance; dynamic amplification factors; finite element model

Address
State Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Tongji University, Siping Road 1239, Shanghai, 200092, China.


Abstract
In the present paper, glass fibers are substituted partially with monofilament fishnet and polyester matrix for making the composites. The composite specimens were prepared in accordance with ASTM for analyzing the flexural strength and dynamic mechanical properties. Furthermore, machinability revealed the interaction of glass fiber and partial substituted monofilament fishnet fiber with the matrix. Fiber pullouts on the fractured specimen during the physical testing of the composites are also investigated by COSLAB microscope. The results reveal that the fishnet based composites have appreciably higher flexural properties. Furthermore, the glass fiber, woven roving and fishnet composite has more storage modulus and significant mechanical damping. The composite specimens were fabricated by hand lay-up method. Hence, these composites are the possible applications to develop the value added products. The results of this study are presented.

Key Words
composite structures; damage/damage identification; debonding separation; dynamic analysis; elasticity; fabrication; fiber reinforced polymers (FRP); hybrid structures

Address
(1) F. Michael Raj:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stella Mary's College of Engineering, Aruthengenvilai, Azhikal Post - 629202, Tamil Nadu, India;
(2) V.A. Nagarajan, R.S. Jayaram:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering Nagercoil, (Anna University Constituent College), Nagercoil - 629004, India;
(3) S. Sahaya Elsi;
Department of EEE, University College of Engineering Nagercoil, (Anna University Constituent College), Nagercoil - 629004, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract
This paper presents the results of an experimental study investigating the effects of anchorage systems used in externally bonded steel plates on the strength and ductility of reinforced concrete structures. In the literature, diagonal steel plates bonded to frames were designed to be more flexible than the connections to eliminate the possible effect of the connection flexibility. However, to better evaluate the performance of the strengthened structures, the strength and behavior of connections should also be considered. The purpose of this study was to experimentally investigate the effects of different connection types of steel plates bonded to the frame using anchors on the strengthened RC structures. For this purpose, eleven specimens were designed to simulate the interior and exterior connection behavior. Two of these were used as the control beams and remaining nine for the investigation of the functionality of the end steel plates. Experimental results show that the load carrying capacity of the strengthened beams is directly related to the connection types of the steel plates. For the interior connections, L-shaped end plates that were strengthened using steel anchors must have adequate stiffness to prevent its shape. While, for the exterior connections, the connection with three anchors carried more load than the other exterior connections.

Key Words
anchorage; reinforced concrete; strengthening; externally bonded steel plates

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Aksaray University, 68100 Aksaray, Turkey.


Abstract
The domestic and foreign scholars conducted many studies on mechanical properties of wave web steel beam and high-strength spiral stirrups confined concrete columns. Based on the previous research work, studies were conducted on the anti-seismic property of the end plate bolt connected wave web steel beam and high-strength spiral stirrups confined concrete column nodes applied with pre-tightening force. Four full-size node test models in two groups were designed for low-cycle repeated loading quasi-static test. Through observation of the stress, distortion, failure process and failure mode of node models, analysis was made on its load-carrying capacity, deformation performance and energy dissipation capacity, and the reliability of the new node was verified. The results showed that: under action of the beam-end stiffener, the plastic hinges on the end of wave web steel beam are displaced outward and played its role of energy dissipation capacity. The study results provided reliable theoretical basis for the engineering application of the new types of nodes.

Key Words
wave web steel beam - column node; high strength bolts; quasi-static test; anti-seismic property

Address
School of Civil Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.


Abstract
Top-down construction is a construction technique in which pit excavation and structure construction are conducted simultaneously. Reducing construction time and minimizing noise and vibration which affect neighboring structures, the technique is widely employed in constructing downtown structures. While H-steel columns have been commonly used as core columns, concrete filled steel tube (CFT) columns are at the center of attention because the latter have less axial directionality and greater cross-sectional efficiency than the former. When compared with circular CFT columns, square CFT columns are more easily connected to the floor structure and the area of percussion rotary drilling (PRD) is smaller. For this reason, square CFT columns are used as core columns of concrete encased and filled square (CET) columns in underground floors. However, studies on the structural behavior and concrete stress transfer of CET columns have not been conducted. Since concrete is cast according to construction sequence, checking the stress of concrete inside the core columns and the stress of covering concrete is essential. This paper presents the results of structural tests and analyses conducted to evaluate the usability and safety of CET columns in top-down construction where CFT columns are used as core columns. Parameters in the tests are loading condition, concrete strength and covering depth. The compressive load capacity and failure behavior of specimens are evaluated. In addition, 2 cases of field application of CET columns in underground floors are analyzed.

Key Words
concrete encased and filled square (CET) column; welded built-up square column; loading condition; concrete stress transfer; pre-load; core column

Address
(1) Sun-Hee Kim, Sung-Mo Choi: Department of Architectural Engineering, University of Seoul, Cheonnong-dong 90, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul, 130-743, Republic of Korea;
(2) Kyong-Soo Yom:
Harmony Engineering, Guro-Gu Seoul 152-051, Republic of Korea.

Abstract
Cold formed steel shear panel is one of the main components to bearing lateral load in low and mid-rise cold formed steel structures. This paper uses finite element analysis to evaluate the stiffness, strength and failure mode at cold formed steel shear panels whit steel sheathing and nonlinear connections that are under monotonic loading. Two finite element models based on two experimental model whit different failure modes is constructed and verified. It includes analytical studies that investigate the effects of studs and steel sheathing thickness changes, fasteners spacing at panel edges, one or two sides steel sheathing and height-width ratio of wall on the lateral load capacity. Dominant failure modes include buckling of steel sheet, local buckling in boundary studs and sheet unzipping in the bottom half of the wall.

Key Words
cold formed steel shear wall; finite element analysis; steel sheathing; maximum lateral resistance; nonlinear connections

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, I.R. of Iran.


Abstract
In this paper, post-buckling behavior of sandwich plates with functionally graded (FG) face sheets under uniform temperature rise loading is examined based on both sinusoidal shear deformation theory and stress function. It is supposed that the sandwich plate is in contact with an elastic foundation during deformation, which acts in both compression and tension. Thermo-elastic non-homogeneous properties of FG layers change smoothly by the variation of power law within the thickness, and temperature dependency of material constituents is considered in the formulation. In the present development, Von Karman nonlinearity and initial geometrical imperfection of sandwich plate are also taken into account. By employing Galerkin method, analytical solutions of thermal buckling and postbuckling equilibrium paths for simply supported plates are determined. Numerical examples presented in the present study discuss the effects of gradient index, sandwich plate geometry, geometrical imperfection, temperature dependency, and the elastic foundation parameters.

Key Words
functionally graded materials; thermal post-buckling; sinusoidal shear deformation theory; elastic foundation; imperfection

Address
(1) Merbouha Barka, Kouider Halim Benrahou, Ahmed Bakora, Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Material and Hydrology Laboratory, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, Faculty of Technology, Civil Engineering Department, Algeria;
(2) Abdelouahed Tounsi:
Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi-échelle, Université de Sidi Bel Abbés, Algerie.

Abstract
The nonlinear seismic responses of steel buildings with perimeter moment resisting frames (PMRF) and interior gravity frames (IGF) are estimated, modeling the interior connections first as perfectly pinned (PPC), and then as partially restrained (PRC). Two 3D steel building models, twenty strong motions and three levels of the PRC rigidity, which are represented by the Richard Model and the Beam Line Theory, are considered. The RUAUMOKO Computer Program is used for the required time history nonlinear dynamic analysis. The responses can be significantly reduced when interior connections are considered as PRC, confirming what observed in experimental investigations. The reduction significantly varies with the strong motion, story, model, structural deformation, response parameter, and location of the structural element. The reduction is larger for global than for local response parameters; average reductions larger than 30% are observed for shears and displacements while they are about 20% for bending moments. The reduction is much larger for medium- than for low-rise buildings indicating a considerable influence of the structural complexity. It can be concluded that, the effect of the dissipated energy at PRC should not be neglected. Even for connections with relative small stiffness, which are usually idealized as PPC, the reduction can be significant. Thus, PRC can be used at IGF of steel buildings with PMRF to get more economical construction, to reduce the seismic response and to make steel building more seismic load tolerant. Much more research is needed to consider other aspects of the problem to reach more general conclusions.

Key Words
steel buildings; partially restrained connections; energy dissipation; nonlinear seismic response; global and local response parameters

Address
Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa, Ciudad Universitaria, Culiacan Sinaloa, México.


Abstract
Commonly in steel frames, steel beam and concrete slab are connected together by shear keys to work as a unit member which is called composite beam. When a composite beam is subjected to positive bending, flexural strength and stiffness of the beam can be increased due to "composite action". At the same time despite these advantages, composite action increases the strain at the beam bottom flange and it might affect beam plastic rotation capacity. This paper presents results of study on the rotation capacity of composite beam connected to Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) column in the steel moment resisting frame buildings. Due to out-of-plane deformation of column flange, moment transfer efficiency of web connection is reduced and this results in reduction of beam plastic rotation capacity. In order to investigate the effects of width-to-thickness ratio (B/t) of RHS column on the rotation capacity of composite beam, cyclic loading tests were conducted on three full scale beam-to-column subassemblies. Detailed study on the different steel beam damages and concrete slab damages are presented. Experimental data showed the importance of this parameter of RHS column on the seismic behavior of composite beams. It is found that occurrence of severe concrete bearing crush at the face of RHS column of specimen with smaller width-to-thickness ratio resulted in considerable reduction on the rate of strain increase in the bottom flange. This behavior resulted in considerable improvement of rotation capacity of this specimen compared with composite and even bare steel beam connected to the RHS column with larger width-to-thickness ratio.

Key Words
composite beam; rectangular hollow section column; cyclic loading test; rotation capacity; connection factor

Address
(1) Mohammadreza Eslami:
Department of Architecture, Kobe University, Japan;
(2) Hisashi Namba:
Department of Architecture, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada ku, Kobe, 657-8501, Japan.

Abstract
A state space differential reproducing kernel (DRK) method is developed for the three-dimensional (3D) analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) axisymmetric circular plates with simply-supported and clamped edges. The strong formulation of this 3D elasticity axisymmetric problem is derived on the basis of the Reissner mixed variational theorem (RMVT), which consists of the Euler-Lagrange equations of this problem and its associated boundary conditions. The primary field variables are naturally independent of the circumferential coordinate, then interpolated in the radial coordinate using the early proposed DRK interpolation functions, and finally the state space equations of this problem are obtained, which represent a system of ordinary differential equations in the thickness coordinate. The state space DRK solutions can then be obtained by means of the transfer matrix method. The accuracy and convergence of this method are examined by comparing their solutions with the accurate ones available in the literature.

Key Words
circular plates; functionally graded material; meshless methods; reproducing kernels; state space methods; three-dimensional analysis

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101,Taiwan, Republic of China.


Abstract
Perforated steel beams can be optimised by increased beam depth and the moment of inertia combined with a reduced web thickness, favouring the use of original I-section beams. The designers are often confronted with situations where optimisation cannot be carried out effectively, taking account of the buckling risk at web posts, moment-shear transfers and local plastic deformations on the transverse holes of the openings. The purpose of this study is to suggest solutions for reducing these failure risks of tested optimal designed beams under applying loads in a self-reacting frame. The design method for the beams is the hunting search optimisation technique, and the design constraints are implemented from BS 5950 provisions. Therefore, I have aimed to explore the strengthening effects of reinforced openings with ring stiffeners, welded vertical simple plates on the web posts and horizontal plates around the openings on the ultimate load carrying capacities of optimally designed perforated steel beams. Test results have shown that compared to lateral stiffeners, ring and vertical stiffeners significantly increase the loadcarrying capacity of perforated steel beams.

Key Words
perforated steel beams; effect of stiffener; load carrying capacity; optimum design; failure modes of beams

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Akdeniz University, 07058, Antalya, Turkey.


Abstract
To study the stress concentration factors (SCFs) of concrete-filled tubular Y-joints subject to in-plane bending, experiments were used to investigate the hot spot stress distribution along the intersection between chord and brace. Three concrete-filled tubular chords forming Y-joints were tested with different reinforcing components, including doubler-plate, sleeve, and haunch-plate reinforcement. In addition, an unreinforced joint was also tested for comparison. Test results indicate that the three different forms of reinforcement effectively reduce the peak SCFs compared with the unreinforced joint. The current research suggests that the linear extrapolation method can be used for chords, whereas the quadratic extrapolation method must be used for braces. The SCF is effectively reduced and more evenly distributed when the value of the axial compression ratio in the chord is increased. Furthermore, the SCFs obtained from the test results were compared to predictions from some well-established SCF equations. Generally, the predictions from those equations are very consistent for braces, but very conservative for concretefilled chords.

Key Words
experimental investigation; Y-joints; concrete-filled; stress concentration factor; in-plane bending; extrapolation method

Address
School of Civil Engineering, Xi\'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi\'an 710055, China.



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